• 28 September 1448 – Christian I is crowned king of Denmark.

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    1502 – Death of Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke,one of the chief commanders against the Cornish rebels for Henry VII in 1497

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    1528 - Spanish fleet sinks in Florida hurricane


    1538 – Ottoman–Venetian War: The Ottoman Navy scores a decisive victory over a Holy League fleet in the Battle of Preveza.


    1542 – Navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo of Portugal arrives at what is now San Diego, California, United States.

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    1553 – Mary I travelled in a decorated barge to the Tower of London to prepare for her coronation.

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    1567-Surprise of Meaux - Huguenots Try to Kidnap Charles IX of France


    1599 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, strode into Elizabeth I’s bedchamber unannounced and saw the Queen without her makeup or wig, without her “mask of youth”.


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  • 27 September 1389 –Birth of Cosimo de' Medici, Italian ruler 

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    1442-Birth of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk known as "the Trimming Duke". He was the son of William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Alice Chaucer, daughter of Thomas Chaucer.


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    1501 – Catherine of Aragon left the port of Laredo in Spain bound for England to marry Arthur, Prince of Wales.

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    1529 – The Siege of Vienna begins when Suleiman I attacks the city.


    1533-Chapuys to Charles V.

    The day before yesterday I went to the country to find Cromwell, who had gone hawking, in order to talk with him and learn something. After some other conversation we came to speak about the Queen, and took an opportunity of setting before him the remonstrances I had already made, exhorting him to do his utmost to induce the King his master to take back the Queen ; which I affirmed was a thing easy to do, considering the King's great prudence, virtue, and courtesy, if he and the rest of the Council would agree to it, and that it was much easier to remedy now than it would have been to prevent it before the things which had been done ; for the King would have resented being unable to put his intention into effect ; but now, having accomplished his desires in everything, and influenced by several considerations, especially the moderation shown by your Majesty, and the extreme patience of the Queen, it was to be hoped he would come to reason, and obey the Holy See and the sentence so justly given. This would augment the general opinion of the English nation that they were more ready to recognise their error than any other people. But as it might be with the King as with wicked monks, who, not for devotion but for pure shame, dare not abandon the habit, and for some point or scruple of honor or suspicion of lightness, he might make himself more intractable, I pointed out that the King's reputation on doing this would not be injured, but very greatly increased ; and for his greater satisfaction, if the King would agree to it, your Majesty might be got to send personages hither, or give me a commission very urgently and affectionately to request him to take back the Queen ; which request could be made in such a form as to take away all suspicion that he did it from fear ; and, moreover, that the Queen might swear solemnly, in presence of Parliament or elsewhere, that she had never been known by prince Arthur, and thus weaken the whole foundation of the King's proceedings. And further, I told him that the King ought not to fear that such a reconciliation would be imputed to him as inconstancy, seeing that the like had occurred to several princes, whom I named to him, especially the Emperor and king of France, Lothair, and Philip I. and III. of France, who by force of justice were compelled to return to their lawful wives, and give up others as adulterers. Cromwell, after thanking me for the affection I showed to his master and the confidence I reposed in him, praised my suggestions and motives, and answered that, as to the sentence given at Rome, which seemed to be my principal ground, it was not to be regarded as of great importance ; for, as the King found by the opinion of several doctors of this realm and of the University of Orleans, it was unjust and invalid ; and the King and every one of them expected it would be revoked, and also that perhaps they would shortly have the definitive sentence in their favor. As to the other point, about sending ambassadors here on the part of your Majesty, or giving me a commission, it would be the most laudable thing in the world, for by this means the regrets, scruples, and remorse of all Christendom would be extinguished, provided the charge of the said ambassadors or my commission should be to conclude or determine this divorce, or take some resolution and assurance as to the manner of living hereafter in order to defeat the slanders and inconveniences which might arise ; but if the charge of the ambassadors contained nothing but the article proposed by me, he saw no hope of effecting it, seeing that matters were too fresh and the King's love too vehement. On this, from one thing to another, he went on to say that it was quite notorious that if your Majesty wished to undertake war against this kingdom, it would be very easy to destroy it, but it would be no great profit to your Majesty ; and it was not to be believed that you, after receiving so many favors from this kingdom, would consent to ruin it. In answer, I said that at least the King could not affirm of the sentence that the Pope had given it through fear of your Majesty, as he had done in the case of the past provisions ; and as for the opinion of the doctors of whom he spoke, I was surprised that he attached importance to it, for the reasons which I told him ; but, moreover, I wondered that he thought your Majesty, on knowing the justice and truth of the case, would treat in prejudice of a sentence so canonically given, which your Majesty would not do for all the world, and that what I had proposed to him proceeded only from myself, out of zeal for the preservation of amity ; and since I had done the duty of an honest man, I did not intend henceforward to take more pains about it, and it was for him and those who have the management of the King's affairs to think about it. He confessed it was true, and that on his side he would do his best, and he watched all occasions to set matters right, but there were some things which he must lead with a long hand (mener de longue main) and discreetly. Hereupon he asked me to send him the books containing the histories of which I had made mention, which I did yesterday morning, and by my messenger he desired me to write to the queen of Hungary to take order that certain rhymes printed in Flanders to the disadvantage of the King his master should be suppressed, and the printing of such things forbidden. He has not informed me of the substance of the said rhymes, intending, as he intimated, to come and tell me about them.

    The King has sent to solicit with all diligence a great jurist of Bologna, named Previdello, to come to Nice to discuss the matter of the divorce in this meeting with the bishop of Winchester, who carries a bag full of writings and consultations, and four full of promises, and as many of menaces ; and those here are in hope to gain the Pope. The French ambassador has notified to the Venetian ambassador that the English have lately been reproaching him with the intelligence that the King his master has with the Pope, and that this interview was half to spite them ; but now they did not hold such language to him, but expressed satisfaction at the meeting. The duke of Norfolk told me lately he had been called to the French king's Council, when it was determined to write to your Majesty about the decapitation of Capt. Merveilles, at which not only the said King was very indignant, but also the Dauphin, who had spoken of it with considerable passion (bien affectueusement). In relating the case the Dauphin had named the duke of Milan. The said Duke (King?) reproved him for having given that title to another than himself ; on which he readily corrected the error. Your Majesty will judge better than I if the intention of the said Duke in that matter was sound.

    Since my last letters there has been nothing new about the treatment of the Queen and Princess, nor about the affairs of Scotland ; nor do I see any appearance of their obeying the censures of the Pope unless they be accompanied with the remedies of which I have before written. And as the good bishop of Rochester says, who sent to me to notify it, the arms of the Pope against these men, who are so obstinate, are more frail than lead, and that your Majesty must set your hand to it, in which you will do a work as agreeable to God as going against the Turk. And if matters were to come to a rupture, perhaps it would not be mal à propos that your Majesty should use all means possible to draw to you or get into your power the son (fn. 2) of the Princess's governess, daughter of the duke of Clarence, to whom, according to the opinion of many, the kingdom would belong. The said son is now studying at Padua. For the great and singular virtue of the Duke (i.e. Pole), besides that he is of the King's kindred, both on the father's side and the mother's, and for the pretension that he and his brother might have to the kingdom, the Queen would like to bestow the Princess on him in marriage rather than any other ; and the Princess would not refuse. He and his brothers have many kinsmen and allies, of whose services your Majesty might thus make use, and gain the greater part of the realm. I beg you to take my bold advice in good part, which is only prompted by my desire to serve you. Among the other allies of the said personage is lord Abergavenny (Burgain), one of the most powerful, wise, and prudent lords of England, who is ill pleased with the King because he detained him long in prison with the duke of Buckingham, his father-in-law, who left therein his person, while Abergavenny left his feathers, that is to say, a great part of his revenue, which he will be glad by some means to get back again, and revenge himself. He had charge lately, when I was in Court, to bring me back (de me ramener de la necessite — ), and then said to me that he would have been glad to talk with me, but had no opportunity ; and only observed that there was not a gentleman in the world who would more heartily do service to your Majesty than he, and that possibly your Majesty would perceive it some day. And because the King would follow entirely the inclination of Cromwell, who preceded us, and kept listening (et nous alloit tenant les oreilles), we had no opportunity of conversation. Nevertheless, the anxiety he expressed to declare his intention induced him to show me all the cordiality he could by taking me by the arm.

    I thought he had been called to Court for some affair of importance, but it was only for a foolish matter, viz. to send him to the duchess of Norfolk, who is his wife's sister, to make an arrangement between her and the Duke her husband, whom she would not see or hear, because he is in love with a young lady of the King's concubine, called Holland. For this reason, since his return to France he had not dared to go and see the Duchess till after the embassy of the said lord Abergavenny, who went at once to the point, promising that the Duke should henceforth be a good husband. London, 27 Sept. 1533.


    1534-Chapuys to Charles V.

    Vienna Archives. Of late days the Chancellor said publicly to several persons, in order that the report might be spread, that the young earl of Kildare had asked pardon of the King. The said Chancellor and Cromwell have since disseminated several such reports to animate those who refuse to go to Ireland. Finally, considering that such inventions might turn to their shame and confusion, they have thought it best to keep silence altogether, and for this cause it has been forbidden in Court to speak of the said affairs ; and Cromwell for some days has not allowed them to be talked about, either at his table or elsewhere. It is therefore to be presumed that matters are not going as the King would like, who, to provide for them, as I am told, has given orders to six gentlemen to raise and take to Ireland 2,000 men each, with instructions to do it as secretly as possible, without mustering them, and send them one by one, for fear of causing disturbance. For their conveyance across, several ships, both Spanish and others, have been retained at Bristol ; and, as I am told by one who has charge of the ships the King has equipped for his provision of wine at Bordeaux, he has got them ready to send over to Ireland. Skeffington has not yet crossed, waiting for reinforcements of men ; and I am told the enemy had taken a Breton Ship laden with Skeffington's horses. Those here (the Council) lately made a great instrument of the earl of Kildare to set the affairs of Ireland right. He has lately died on prison of his old malady, for which they are very sorry. A Welsh gentleman, who was a fugitive in Scotland, has crossed to Ireland, which will not diminish the troubles of those here, for he is a man of courage and good sense, and of the principal lineage of Wales, who could put the King to terrible confusion by his partisans if the affairs of Kildare continue to prosper. I am told also that the uncle of earl Douglas, who was here an exile from Scotland, has returned to Scotland, after seeking pardon of his king, without the knowledge of this king. It has been proposed to send several good personages to Ireland, but none will go (nul nen vcult menger) any more than the duke of Suffolk.

    On the news of the descent of Barbarossa and the of the Pope's relapse the French ambassador went to reside at Court, 40 miles from here. There some couriers whom he had despatched to France had also arrived. He has sent thither also his secretary, which must have been at the King's instance, as Cromwell furnished the money for the journey. Some think he has gone to solicit some men and ships to be sent to Ireland, more for reputation both as regards the enemy and this people than for anything else. It is said also that the Lubeckers have offered to send ships in spring.

    Certain English merchants, hearing that the Irish had intelligence with your majesty, made a difficulty of sending ships to Spain, until one of the King's Council told them that there was no fear of your majesty coming to a rupture with the King, whatever intelligence you might have in Ireland, in which country your majesty paid the same compliment to this king that he had done to you in Germany.

    The Princess has been very ill. Having been obliged to remove and follow the Bastard when a little indisposed, it increased her illness, but she is better. It has been a great comfort to her that the King her father sent her his physician, and permitted the Queen also to visit her, and the apothecary from whom she has received all her medicines for four years. The King had ordered that the said physicians and apothecary of the Queen should be induced to pay their respects to the Bastard before the Princess, but the messenger arrived too late. The King commanded the said physicians and apothecary not to speak to the Princess except in the presence of people, and not in any other language than English. Since the King began to doubt whether his lady was enccintc or not, he has renewed and increased the love he formerly had for a very beautiful damsel of the Court; and because the said lady (demoiselle, qu. dame ?) wished to drive her away, the King has been very angry, telling his said lady (dame) that she had good reason to be content with what he had done for her, which he would not do now if the thing were to begin, and that she should consider from what she had come, and several other things. To which it is not well to attach too much importance, considering the changeable character of the said King and the craft of the said lady, who knows well how to manage him.

    I believe one of the principal occasions for which the English ambassador with your majesty has sent his man here has been to notify how the messenger of the earl of Desmond had been received at your majesty's Court. 24 Sept. 1534.


    1540 – The Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) receives its charter from Pope Paul III.


    1590 – Pope Urban VII dies 13 days after being chosen as the Pope, making his reign the shortest papacy in history.

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    1601 –Birth of  Louis XIII of France 

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    1615 –Death of  Lady Arbella Stuart, wife of William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset who was for some time considered a possible successor to Queen Elizabeth I of England.She  was the only child of Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox and Elizabeth Cavendish

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  • 26 September 1329 –Birth of  Anne of Bavaria


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    1493 – Pope Alexander VI issues the papal bull Dudum siquidem to the Catholic Monarchs, extending the grant of new lands he made them in Inter caetera

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    Dudum siquidem (Latin for "A short while ago") was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on 26 September 1493, one of the Bulls of Donation addressed to the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon which supplemented the bull Inter caetera and purported to grant to them "all islands and mainlands whatsoever, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, that are or may be or may seem to be in the route of navigation or travel towards the west or south, whether they be in western parts, or in the regions of the south and east and of India"



    1535-Henry VIII. to Gardiner.

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    From experience of his wisdom and discretion the King appoints him ambassador to the French court to negotiate such articles in the treaty as shall be for the interest of the two crowns, consequent upon the friendly letters sent by Francis in his own hand by Mons. de Tyndevile, bailly of Troyes. On presenting his credentials he shall inform Francis that the King, in consideration of his faithful friendship and his desire of amity at a time when the King's proceedings have been exposed to slander, accepts his kindness; although the bishop of Rome's malicious proceedings against his Grace are no novelty, and only bring to his memory the saying of Francis at their late being together at Boulogne, that the King would find the bishops of Rome "false, untrue, and malicious." Has accordingly sent the bishop of Winchester, who is to enter into a full detail of the late occurrences, and shall declare that the King has only proceeded in such a way as becomes a Christian prince, "declaring unto him how all such reverence and orders in the Church and religion of Christ as may by any temperance be suffered be in the realm of England untouched and unmoved." He is to offer any conference of learned men to be appointed to defend what the King has done in relation to the bishop of Rome, and shall explain why the bishop of Hereford was sent to the duke of Saxony to defend the King's proceedings, as the King is resolved to defend himself in all parts against the slanders of the bishop of Rome. The said bishop of Hereford is to learn their state in religion that unity may be established. Gardiner is to do what he can to discover the real intentions of Francis, and whether his message is simulated or not, and whether he wishes to make advantage of the King's affairs for his interests with the Pope or the Emperor; and is for that purpose to communicate with Sir John Wallop. He shall endeavour to induce them to capitulate by express words, and bind them to take the King's part against the Emperor and the Pope, who has sent a brief to the French King sounding greatly to the dishonor of Henry, and summoned him not only to abandon the friendship of England, but to make war upon it whenever the Pope shall require him. And the French king shall bind himself, on a certain day specified in the treaty, to signify by his letter to the Pope that as he knows the whole progress of the King's cause, and the grounds of his separation from his first incest and unlawful matrimony to be virtuous, and his extirpation of the said Bishop's authority, he will support him against all ecclesiastical censures, any inhibition notwithstanding. If he can accomplish this, he shall get them to despatch the letters at once, and obtain leave to compose them, or see that they be correspondent to the words of the treaty. If they decline to write such letters, which he shall press by all the "means he can excogitate," he shall then with good words and countenance proceed to the following:

    —1. The King is willing to join with Francis in raising an army in France at what time he shall think meet, but will not allow his moiety of the expense to exceed 200,000 crowns. He is to see if it can be diminished.

     2. The King will contribute one-third of the expense of an army to invade Italy and recover the rights of the French in Genoa and Milan; and if the Bishop can induce them to begin the war in the Low parts the King will be content to contribute 300,000 crowns in two years, these sums to be deducted out of the pensions due to the King, in part payment. 

    3. After the treaty the French king is to take no peace with the Pope or Emperor without the King's consent.

     4. In case the Pope or the Emperor invade England Francis shall be ready to molest them. 

    5. To revise the treaties for intercourse with Flanders. 

    6. Nothing to be concluded prejudicial to former treaties.

     7. He shall tell them that the Emperor intends to secure for himself the whole monarchy of Christendom, and with that view has begun to practise with Denmark. And in urging these arguments the Bishop shall watch the French king's inward demeanour. Signed by the King.


    1533-Death of William Benet,diplomat


    1546-Prince Edward to his Sister Mary.

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    Love compels him to write to her; and even if she were not his sister he would be bound to love her for her virtue, for virtue is the loadstone of love and will never perish, but other things will quickly slip away. Was bound therefore to think of her and, having leisure, to compose a letter. Prays God to be her shield against all evil. 26 Sept. 1546.

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    1580-Sir Francis Drake returns to Plymouth, England, aboard the Golden Hind, after a 33-month voyage to circumnavigate the globe.

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    1588-Death of Sir Amias Paulet,English diplomat, Governor of Jersey, and the gaoler for a period of Mary, Queen of Scots.



  • 23 September 1434 – Birth of Yolande of Valois


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    1459 – Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, is fought at Blore Heath in Staffordshire.

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    1535 – Death of Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg 

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    1552-Second Version of Book of Common Prayer Becomes Mandatory in England

    The second version of the Book of Common Prayer becomes mandatory in England. Like the first, this one is edited by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.

    This version of the Book of Common Prayer is only used for a few months before King Edward VI of England dies and his half-sister, Mary I, takes the throne and restores Roman Catholicism as England's official religion. 


    The Second Prayer Book of Edward VI:http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/1552/BCP_1552.htm

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    1561-Philip II of Spain gives orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida.

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    1561-Birth of Edward Seymour, Viscount Beauchamp,son of the 1st Earl of Hertford and  Lady Catherine Grey, younger sister of Lady Jane Grey. 

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    1568 – Spanish naval forces rout an English fleet, under the command of John Hawkins, at the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa near Veracruz.


    1571 – Death of John Jewel, English bishop 

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    1577-William of Orange makes his triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.


    1598 – Birth of Eleonore Gonzaga, Italian wife of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor


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    24 September 1435 –Death of  Isabeau of Bavaria 

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    1449-Pope Nicholas V's bull beclares jewish converts be treated like those born christians


    1486 – Arthur, Prince of Wales  was christened at a lavish ceremony at Winchester Cathedral.

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    1513 – Birth of Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg

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    1564 – Birth of William Adams, English sailor and navigator






    25 September 1506 –Death of Philip I of Castile 

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    1513 – Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches what would become known as the Pacific Ocean.


    1525 –Birth of  Steven Borough, English explorer and navigator


    1534 –Death of  Pope Clement VII

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    1535- Chapuys to Charles V.

    When the ships this King was sending to Denmark, of which I wrote on the 13th and in preceding letters, were about to sail, news came that the affairs of the Lubeckers were going ill, that the army of the king of Sweden and his confederates had taken 12 or 14 English ships, richly laden, on their return from Dantzic, and that there was some apprehension as to the ship which conveyed Candix and Dr. Bonard the English ambassadors; also that the castle  to which the King meant to send the said two ships had been taken. For this reason the King has countermanded the voyage of the said ships; and the artillery, munition, victuals, &c., have already been discharged; and, as I understand, the King and his Council are greatly astonished at the said news and have used big words against the captain under whose charge the ships were to go, because he had disguised matters in a different fashion from what appears by the event. But such words will not compensate the poor merchants who have lost their goods, and have no other revenge except to abuse the King and his government and his rash enterprises. The bailly of Troyes arrived with the King about six days ago. By what he said in passing, he was only to remain for a very short time, but I think he will at least await the answer of the courier whom he sent on the following day. The delay of his coming troubled the English marvellously, as the ambassador of France has said, especially as Wallop wrote long ago that Francis had despatched the said bailly in all possible haste, and made him dislodge at midnight, charging him to use extreme diligence. Before the arrival of the said bailly the said ambassador of France knew not what he was coming for, unless it was to satisfy the English touching this last interview at Cambray; and hitherto I have not been able to learn anything else. I am told the said bailly has not brought pleasant news to the King, for he appeared sad and melancholy when he had read the letters the bailly presented. The French ambassador is believed to have said that it was thought in France, and here also, that the Pope had cooled in his intention of fulminating the censures against the English from a fear that your Majesty's coming to Italy was partly to deprive the Church of its temporal jurisdiction, and that if his Holiness provoked this King further his case would not be better, but very much worse, and although this suggestion is very absurd there is no reason to be surprised at it, coming from such a quarter.

    The King having arrived at Winchester, where he is at present, caused an inventory to be made of the treasures of the church, from which he took certain fine rich unicorns' horns (licornes), and a large silver cross adorned with rich jewels. He has also taken from the Bishop certain mills, to give them to the community in order to gain favour. Cromwell, wherever the King goes, goes round about visiting the abbeys, making inventories of their goods and revenues, instructing them fully in [the tenets of] this new sect, turning out of the abbeys monks and nuns who made their profession before they were 25, and leaving the rest free to go out or to remain. It is true they are not expressly told to go out, but it is clearly given them to understand that they had better do, it, for they are going to make a reformation of them so severe and strange that in the end they will all go; which is the object the King is aiming at, in order to have better occasion to seize the property without causing the people to murmur.

    Five or six days ago Kildare, arrived with the King, conducted thither by lord Leonard, brother of the late Marquis, and of Kildare's mother-inlaw. It is thought that, although no great hope was given him at Cromwell's arrival, and he attaches little importance to the promise made to him by lord Leonard, yet the King will pardon him, especially as he has deigned to give him audience, and he goes about the Court at liberty; and the words of Cromwell tended to increase the obligation which the said Kildare ought to have to the King's clemency in giving him a free pardon, without being bound by the said promise or otherwise; yet it is to be feared that whenever the King has got the country of Kildare in hand, and Ireland reduced to obedience, he will get up some new quarrel against the said Kildare to have a pretext to dispatch him, as he has already done to White Rose  and others. They pretend that lord Leonard has left hostages for Kildare's surety; but one of the Privy Council told his wife, as she informed me yesterday, that the said Kildare stole away from his men and came in his shirt to the said lord Leonard. I will get further information of the whole matter. It is said one of the uncles of Kildare still holds out (tient tousiours bon), which is very probable, as there is no report that the English have occupied any lands in Ireland.

    While writing, I have been informed that one of the French ambassador's servants had asserted, as perfectly true, that the bailly of Troyes had only come to ask the King to deliver the Princess to the Dauphin, according to the promises and treaties therenpon made, and at the same time to warn him as a sort of protest touching her good treatment and health. It cannot be long before I discover the whole truth, which I will use every effort to obtain. 25 Sept.


    1555 – The Peace of Augsburg is signed in Augsburg by Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.

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    The Peace of Augsburg (Augsburger Rechtsfrieden), sometimes known as the Augsburg Settlement, ends the religious conflict between Catholic and Protestant rulers in Germany.Signed in Augsburg by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League, it creates the principle Cuius regio, eius religio ("Whose realm, his religion"), which means that whoever rules a territory gets to decide the official religious confession of the people there: Catholic or Lutheran.Other forms of Protestantism, like Calvinism, are specifically excluded from the agreement, and people caught following or promoting them can be executed as heretics.People in a territory who do not follow the official confession dictated by the ruler are permitted to leave that territory with their property — a situation that falls well short of true freedom of conscience, but it's nevertheless a significant step forward from the traditional ways of dealing with religious minorities.


    1560 -  Philip II names Frederik Schenck of Toutenburg, 1st archbishop of Utrecht

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    1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots was moved to Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire.

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    1597 - Amiens surrenders to French King Henri IV






  • 22 September 1345 – Death of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, English politician, Lord High Steward 


    1399 –Death of  Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, English politician



    1499 – Treaty of Basel:


    The Treaty of Basel of 22 September 1499 was an armistice following the Battle of Dornach, concluding the Swabian War, fought between the Swabian League and the Old Swiss Confederacy.The accession of Basel to the confederacy in 1501 is a direct consequence of the treaty.


    1503-Election of Pius III as Pope, dies 10 Days after his coronation


    1504-The Treaty of Blois was an agreement between Louis XII of France and the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximillian I and his son Archduke Philip, the father of the future Emperor Charles V. It was signed on September 22, 1504, at Blois.The treaty centered around an agreement of marriage between Claude of France and Charles, with Claude carrying a dowry that included Brittany, Burgundy, and Blois,and France and Spain agreeing to bestow Naples upon Charles. However, the terms of the treaty fell through when Claude was betrothed to her second cousin, the future Francis I of France. This seemed the likely outcome from the start, as Claude's mother, Anne of Brittany, was the only participant truly eager for the match (it would have kept her duchy of Brittany out of the control of the French crown)


    1515-Birth of Anna von Jülich-Kleve-Berg or Anne of Cleves,Queen of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. The marriage was declared never consummated, and she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment of their marriage, Anne was given a generous settlement by the King, and thereafter referred to as the King's Beloved Sister. She lived to see the coronation of Queen Mary I, outliving the rest of Henry's wives.

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    1529 - Henry VIII dismisses the Lord Chancellor Cardinal Wolsey for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his divorce from Catherine of Aragon

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    1554 – Death of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, Spanish explorer 


    1566 – Death of Johannes Agricola, German religious reformer 

    Today in Tudor History...

    1586 – Battle of Zutphen: Spanish victory over the English and Dutch.


    The Battle of Zutphen was fought on 22 September 1586, near the village of Warnsveld and the town of Zutphen, Netherlands, during the Eighty Years' War. It was fought between forces of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, aided by the English, against the Spanish. In 1585, England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the States-General of the Netherlands and formally entered the war against Spain. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was appointed as the Governor-General of the Netherlands and sent there in command of an English army to support the Dutch rebels. When Alessandro Farnese, Prince of Parma and commander of the Spanish Army of Flanders, besieged the town of Rheinberg during the Cologne War, Leicester, in turn, besieged the town of Zupthen, in the province of Gelderland and on the eastern bank of the river IJssel.Zutphen was strategically important to Farnese, as it allowed his troops to levy war contributions in the rich Veluwe region. Therefore, he left some troops blockading Rheinberg and marched to relieve the town. He personally supplied Zutphen at first, but as the Anglo-Dutch siege continued, he assembled a large convoy whose delivery to the town he entrusted to the Marquis of Vasto. Leicester learned of this when a courier dispatched by Farnese to Francisco Verdugo, the man in charge of Zutphen, was intercepted. The English and Dutch prepared an ambush, in which many English knights and noblemen were involved. In the end, the Spanish succeeded in delivering the convoy safely to Zutphen after a hard-fought battle. The Spanish cavalry, composed mainly of Italian and Albanian soldiers, was defeated by the English cavalry under the Earl of Essex. The Spanish infantry, however, held its ground and delivered the convoy to Zutphen. From there, reinforced by Verdugo, the Spanish troops forced the English to retreat.Zutphen was secured for the Spanish, though in the following weeks the English managed to capture a major Spanish fort, Zutphen's sconce, on the bank of the IJssel river opposite the town. Most of the English gains were negated when, a year later, the English governors of Deventer and Zutphen's sconce defected to the Spanish ranks and handed over their places to Farnese.



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