• 13 October 1415 – Death of Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel, English politician, Lord High Treasurer of England

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    1453 –Birth of  Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales also known as Edward of Lancaster, was the only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou and the first husband of Anne Neville.He was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury, making him the only heir apparent to the English throne ever to die in battle.

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    1483 - Rabbi Issac Abarbanel starts his exegesis on Bible


    1508 -Death of  Edmund de Ros, 11th Baron de Ros, English politician


    1534 - Alessandro Farnese elected as Pope Paul III


    1566 –Birth of  Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, Irish politician, Lord High Treasurer of Ireland 



    14 October 1404 –Birth of  Marie of Anjou.She was Queen of France as the wife of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461. Marie was the eldest daughter of Louis II of Anjou, titular King of Naples, titular King of Sicily, and Yolande of Aragon, titular Queen of Aragon.

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    1536 – The Pilgrimage of Grace rebellion began

    The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular rising in Yorkshire in the autumn of 1536 in protest against Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the policies of the King's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, as well as other specific political, social and economic grievances. It has been termed "the most serious of all Tudor rebellions".Although sometimes used with reference to other risings in northern England at the time, including the Lincolnshire rising which occurred twelve days before the actual Pilgrimage of Grace, the term Pilgrimage of Grace technically refers only to the uprising in Yorkshire.

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    1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots, goes on trial for conspiracy against Elizabeth I of England.

    Mary Stuart was put on trial for treason under the Act for the Queen's Safety before a court of 36 noblemen, including Cecil, Shrewsbury, and Walsingham.Spirited in her defence, Mary denied the charges. She told her triers, "Look to your consciences and remember that the theatre of the whole world is wider than the kingdom of England". She drew attention to the facts that she was denied the opportunity to review the evidence, that her papers had been removed from her, that she was denied access to legal counsel and that as a foreign anointed queen she had never been an English subject and thus could not be convicted of treason

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  • 11 October 1521 - Pope Leo X declared King Henry VIII the Fidei Defensor or Defender of the Faith. This title was given to honor Henry for his book Defense of the Seven Sacraments which attacked the theology of Martin Luther and was dedicated to Leo. This title was added to the full royal title of Henry as “Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith and Lord of Ireland”.


    Today in Tudor History...

    Bull of Leo. X. conferring upon the King, in full consistory, the title of "Fidei Defensor." Rome., 1521.

    Wolsey's speech on presenting the bull for the title of Defender of the Faith:

    When John Clerk, the King's ambassador at Rome, presented the King's book against Luther to the late pope, Leo X., in presence of the college of Cardinals, it was beautiful to hear with what exultation the Pope and Cardinals broke out into the praises of Henry, declaring that no one could have devised a better antidote to the poison of heresy, and that Henry had with great eloquence completely refuted Luther by reason, Scripture and the authority of the Fathers. He had thus devoted his learning to the support of religion, and shown an example to Christian princes. As an imperfect acknowledgment of this service, the Pope, with the unanimous assent of the Cardinals, a little before his death, ordained, by letters under the hands of himself and them, that Henry should henceforth be called "Defender of the Faith," and ordered a bull to be sent, which Wolsey now presents. Congratulates Henry on the honor, and himself on having induced him to undertake the work.


    1531 – Huldrych Zwingli is killed in battle with the Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland.


    1532 –King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn,Marchioness Of Pembroke left England for Calais

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    1534-Chapuys to Charles V.

    The German mentioned in my last is one of the counts of Hoy, brother-in-law, and, as I understand, enemy to the king of Sweden. He has already spoken to Cromwell, but not to the King, and it is not known what he is soliciting. The King, being informed there was some talk of a marriage between the Infanta and the Dauphin, despatched the secretary of the French ambassador, as I have before informed you, to propose, as I understand, the marriage of the Bastard with the duke of Angoulême; and it is said that the admiral of France comes to consult upon this with other matters. The King has already sent a ship well armed and equipped for his passage, and given orders that he shall be well received wherever he goes. I understand also that the despatch of the said secretary was in order, that as the French king would not revoke the edict he had made about the shipping of merchandise between England and France, of which I have already written, he would at least suspend its execution, to appease the cry of this people till next parliament, when the acts of which the French complained would be amended. On this hope the suspension has been obtained.

    The honest men among the King's Council believed that when there was a new Pope the King would resume his obedience to the Church, but news having lately arrived of the Pope's illness, when the duke of Norfolk and the Marquis suggested that, like a Catholic prince, he would make no difficulty in obeying the new Pope, he answered that no one should mock him by advising such a thing, for he would have no greater regard for any Pope in the world that might be chosen than for the meanest priest of his kingdom. Two days ago the news of his Holiness's death came by letters from Gregory de Casal, which has been to the King the greatest pleasure in the world, and Cromwell has been unable to refrain from saying several times in public that this great devil was dead, and it seemed as if he was very sorry he could find no worse name for him than devil.

    Of late days lord Rochford's wife has been banished the Court because she had conspired with the (sa qu. la?) Concubine to procure the withdrawal from Court of the young lady whom this king has been accustomed to serve (la demoiselle que ce roy a accoustume de servir), whose influence increases daily, while that of the Concubine diminishes, which has already abated a good deal of her insolence (fierte et gloire). The said young lady has of late sent to the Princess to tell her to be of good cheer, and that her troubles would sooner come to an end than she supposed, and that when the opportunity occurred she would show herself her true and devoted servant.

    The prohibition lately issued to speak of news from Ireland was to prevent it being known that Kildare had killed more than 1,500 of the King's men. It is said that Skeffington had embarked with all his men, and was on the point of setting sail, and, as I understand, he would be glad if the weather were such that he could not cross, for, as he has several times written to his friends, he considers himself undone if her goes. 13 Oct. 1534.


    1537 – Solemn procession for the Queen Jane Seymour who was in labour

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    1537-Birth of Lady Jane Grey also known as The Nine Days' Queen was an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England from 10 July until 19 July 1553.

    She was The great-granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary,queen of France. In May 1553, she was married to Lord Guildford Dudley, younger son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. When the 15-year-old king Edward VI lay dying in June 1553, he nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will, thus subverting the claims of his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth under the Third Succession Act. Jane was imprisoned in the Tower of London when the Privy Council decided to change sides and proclaim Mary as queen on 19 July 1553. Jane was convicted of high treason in November 1553, which carried a sentence of death, although her life was initially spared. Wyatt's rebellion of January and February 1554 against Queen Mary I's plans to marry Philip of Spain led to the execution of both Jane and her husband.

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    1540 - Emperor Karel names his son Philip, Duke of Milan


    1573 - Battle of South Seas - Dutch rebels beat Spanish navy



    12 October 1492 – Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas. The explorer believes he has reached the Indies.


    1499-Birth of Claude of France, queen consort of France and duchess regnant of Brittany. She was the eldest daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany, as well as the first spouse of Francis I 

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    1504 - Queen Isabella I of Spain signs her testament

    Today in Tudor History...

    1537 – Birth of Edward VI of England,son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first monarch raised as a Protestant. During Edward's reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority. The Council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, , and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, from 1551 Duke of Northumberland.


    1537-Queen Jane Seymour to Cromwell.

    "Informs him of the birth of her son "conceived in lawful matrimony." Hampton Court, 12 Oct.

    Today in Tudor History...

    1537-The Prince's Christening.

    Mandate to the mayor and sheriffs of London to make proclamation forbidding the access of persons to the Court on Monday next, the day appointed for the Prince's christening, without special letters from the King or some of his Council, on account of the plague. No duke is to bring more than six persons in his company, no marquis more than five, no earl above four, no baron above three, no knight or squire above two, no bishop or abbot above four, and none of the King's or Queen's chaplains above two. Westminster, 12 Oct., Hen. VIII.


    1558 – Birth of Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria 

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    1576 –  Birth of Thomas Dudley, English-American politician, 3rd Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony


    1576 –Death of  Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor

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  • 09 October 1390 – Death of John I of Castile


    1514 – Marriage of Louis XII of France and Mary Tudor.


    Today in Tudor History...


    1529-Wolsey to Henry VIII

    Though I daily cry to you for mercy, I beseech that you will not think it proceeds from any mistrust I have in your goodness, nor that I would molest you by my importunate suit. The same comes of my ardent desire, that, next unto God, I covet nothing so much in this world as your favor and forgiveness. The remembrance of my folly, with the sharp sword of your displeasure, have so penetrated my heart that I cannot but say, Sufficit; nunc contine, piissime Rex, manum tuam, &c. Beati misericordes, quoniam ipsi misericordiam consequentur; which, that I may obtain, I shall not cease to pray as your most prostrate poor chaplain, "T. Carlis Ebor., miserimus."

    Today in Tudor History...

    1555 – Death of Justus Jonas, German religious reformer


    1573 – Death of Sir Thomas Wroth, courtier, politician and landowner


    1581 – Birth of Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac, French mathematician, poet, and scholar 

    Today in Tudor History...

    1581 – Death of Louis Bertrand, Spanish missionary and saint 

    Today in Tudor History...



    1586 – Birth of Leopold V, Archduke of Austria 


    1595 - The Spanish army captures Cambrai.




    10 October 1471 – Battle of Brunkeberg in Stockholm: Sten Sture the Elder, the Regent of Sweden, with the help of farmers and miners, repels an attack by Christian I, King of Denmark.


    1514-Mary,Queen of France to Henry VIII

    Marvels she has not heard from him since her departure. She is now left "post alone." "On the morn next after my marriage my chamberlain, with all other men servants, were discharged, [an]d likewise my mother Guldeford, with other my women and maidens, except such as never had experience nor knowledge how to advertise or give me counsel in any time of need, which is to be feared more shortly than your grace thought at the time of my departing, as my mother Guldeford can more plainly show your grace than I can write." Begs credence for her, and desires her return. "I marvel much that my Lord of Norfolk wold at all times so lightly grant everything at their requests here. I am well assured that when ye know the truth of everything, as my mother Guldeford can show you, ye wold full little have thought I should have been thus intreated, that would God my Lord of Zorke had come with me in the room of my Lord of Norfolk, for [the]n am I sure I should have been left much more at my heart's [ease] than I am now" ,Abbevile

    Today in Tudor History...

    Mary,Queen of France to Wolsey

    Complains of her servants having been discharged the morning after her marriage; among the rest her "mother Guldeford," whom the King and Wolsey advised her always to consult. No attention was paid to Mary's urgent request that she should remain. Has many other discomforts besides. Begs Wolsey will find the means to have her sent back. "I had as lief lose the winning I shall have in France as to lose her counsel when I shall lack it; which is not like long to be required, as I am sure the noblemen and gentlemen can show you more than becometh me to write in this matter." Is dissatisfied with Norfolk. 


    1530 – Death of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset.He  was an English peer, courtier, soldier and landowner, the grandfather of Lady Jane Grey, briefly Queen of England.


    1535-Catherine of Aragon to Charles V

    Thanks God for his Majesty's great victory and that he has arrived in Italy in safety. Hopes now that he will be able to put an end to her troubles and devise some remedy with the Pope for the things attempted against the Church, which she does not particularise, because the Emperor knows them well; for if it be delayed, and God in his mercy do not help, they will do with her and her daughter what they have done with many holy martyrs. The Emperor must not think this feigned, because, as she writes to his Holiness, she has much comfort in the hope of following them in death whom she could not imitate in life, as their lives were ecclesiastical and hers mundane. And although she is informed her daughter is in greater danger, has nothing more to say than that she recommends herself to God and to his Majesty. Begs him to remember this kingdom, the King her lord, her daughter, and the souls that will be damned for want of remedy and the innocents who suffer. The Emperor is much bound to the ambassador here for the trouble he has taken about her and her daughter. Begs him to remember his services in such a way that he shall see the Queen is not ungrateful. For the rest refers to his letters. Kimbolton, 10 Oct.

    Today in Tudor History...

    Catherine of Aragon to Paul III

    Has forborne to write to his Holiness as her letters are full of complaints, although not without scruple, as matters in this kingdom require greater diligence. For one thing, however, she gives thanks to Christ for having given Christendom such a vicar in a time of so great necessity. Begs him to have special consideration for this kingdom, for the King her husband, and her daughter; for, if a remedy be not applied with all speed, there will be no end to the loss of souls or to the making of martyrs. The good will be constant and suffer, the lukewarm perhaps fall away, and the rest stray like sheep without a shepherd. Writes to his Holiness plainly for discharge of her conscience as one who expects death along with her daughter. Has some comfort to think she will follow those holy men in their sufferings, though she grieves that she cannot imitate their lives. Kimbolton, 10 Oct. 1535.


    1549 - Edward Seymour, Lord Protector was imprisoned

    Today in Tudor History...


    1567 – Birth of Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain,the youngest surviving daughter of Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois

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    1575 – Battle of Dormans: Roman Catholic forces under Duke Henry of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay among others.


    1580 – Over 600 Papal soldiers land at Dún an Óir, Ireland to support a rebellion.




  • 07 October 1471 – Birth of Frederick I of Denmark

    Today in Tudor History...

    1513 – Battle of La Motta: Spanish troops under Ramón de Cardona defeat the Venetians.


    1555 – Death of Louis of Praet.He was a nobleman from the Low Countries and an important diplomat and statesman under the Emperor Charles V.


    1573 – Birth of William Laud, English archbishop 

    Today in Tudor History...


    1576 –Birth of  John Marston, English poet and playwright


    1577 – Death of George Gascoigne, English soldier, courtier, and poet 



    08 October 1515 – Birth of Margaret Douglas, she was the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland. In her youth she was high in the favour of her uncle, King Henry VIII, but twice incurred the King's anger, first for her unauthorised engagement to Lord Thomas Howard, who died in the Tower of London in 1537 because of his misalliance with her, and again in 1540 for an affair with Thomas Howard's nephew Sir Charles Howard, the brother of Queen consort Catherine Howard. On 6 July 1544, she married Matthew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox, one of Scotland's leading noblemen. Her son Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, married Mary, Queen of Scots and was the father of James VI of Scotland 

    Today in Tudor History...

    1549 – Edward Seymour was proclaimed a traitor by the King’s privy council

    Today in Tudor History...

    1573 – End of the Spanish siege of Alkmaar, the first Dutch victory in Eighty Years War.



  • 05 October 1450 – Jews are expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria.


    1465-King Louis XI signs peace with Charles the Stout

    Today in Tudor History...


    1496 - Death of Ferdinand II, king of Naples


    1518 – Betrothal of Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, and the Dauphin of France

    Today in Tudor History...

    1528 – Death of Richard Foxe, English bishop


    1550 – Foundation of Concepción, city in Chile.


    1568 - Conference of York begins: trial against Mary Stuart

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    06 October 1499 - King Louis XII occupies Milan

    Today in Tudor History...

    Today in Tudor History...

    1542 – Death of Thomas Wyatt, English poet and diplomat.He was the son of Sir Henry Wyatt and Anne Skinner.In 1520, Wyatt married Elizabeth Brooke, the daughter of Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham, by Dorothy Heydon, daughter of Sir Henry Heydon and Elizabeth or Anne Boleyn, daughter of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn.He accompanied Sir John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, to Rome to help petition Pope Clement VII to annul the marriage of Henry VIII to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, an embassy whose goal was to make Henry free to marry Anne Boleyn. According to some, Wyatt was captured by the armies of Emperor Charles V when they captured Rome and imprisoned the Pope in 1527 but managed to escape and then made it back to England. In 1535 Wyatt was knighted and appointed High Sheriff of Kent for 1536.In May 1536 Wyatt was imprisoned in the Tower of London for allegedly committing adultery with Queen Anne Boleyn.He was released from the Tower later that year, thanks to his friendship or his father's friendship with Thomas Cromwell, and he returned to his duties. During his stay in the Tower he may have witnessed not only the execution of Anne Boleyn (19 May 1536) from his cell window but also the prior executions of the five men with whom she was accused of adultery. Wyatt is known to have written a poem inspired by the experience,which, though it stays clear of declaring the executions groundless, expresses grief and shock. 

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    1573 – Birth of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire

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