19 January 1419 – Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England, completing his reconquest of Normandy.
1526 –Death of Isabella of Austria
1544 –Birth of Francis II of France
1547 –Execution of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, English poet and first cousin of Catherine Howard
1601 – Death of Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
18 January 1425 – Death of Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, English politician
1486 – Marriage of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
1535 – Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro founds Lima, the capital of Peru.
1562 – Pope Pius IV reopens the Council of Trent for its third and final session.
1586 – Death of Margaret of Parma
17 January 1501 - Cesare Borgia returns in triumph to Rome from Romagna
1504 –Birth of Pope Pius V
1517 – Birth of Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk and father of Lady Jane Grey.
1524 – Giovanni da Verrazzano sets sail westward from Madeira to find a sea route to the Pacific Ocean.
1541 –Sir Thomas Wyatt was arrested,taken bound and manacled to the Tower
1562 – France recognizes the Huguenots by the Edict of Saint-Germain.
1595 – Henry IV of France declares war on Spain.
16 January 1409 –Birth of René of Anjou.He was the father of Margaret of Anjou, Queen Consort of England
1412 – The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy.
1486 – The Bishop of Imola authorised the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
1492 – The first grammar of the Spanish language is presented to Queen Isabella
1493 - Columbus leaves the new world and sets sail for Spain on his first trip
1501 –Birth of Anthony Denny, English politician.He was a confidant of Henry VIII of England. Denny was the most prominent member of the Privy chamber in Henry's last years having, together with his brother-in-law John Gates, charge of the "dry stamp" of Henry's signature, and attended Henry on his deathbed. He also served as Groom of the Stool. He was a member of the reformist circle that offset the conservative religious influence of Bishop Gardiner. He was a wealthy man, having acquired manors and former religious sites through the Court of augmentations.By 1548 he was keeper of Westminster Palace
1549 – Thomas Seymour allegedly attempted to kidnap Edward VI
1556 – Philip II becomes King of Spain.
1558 – Death of Thomas Alsop, chief apothecary to Henry VIII
1572 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England.
15 January 1432 –Birth of Afonso V of Portugal
1503 – Proxy marriage of James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor
1522 – Death of Sir John Heron,he was an English courtier. He was born in Hackney, Middlesex, and came to prominence as Treasurer of the Chamber under Henry VII and Henry VIII between 1492 and 1521.He was in charge of the financial arrangements for the Field of the Cloth of Gold, a huge diplomatic initiative to celebrate peace between England and France.
1535 - Henry VIII declares himself head of the Church in England
1539 - Spain annexes Cuba.
1541 – King Francis I of France gives Jean-François Roberval a commission to settle the province of New France (Canada) and provide for the spread of the "Holy Catholic faith".
1552 - France signs secret treaty with German Protestants
1555 – Death of Jane Dudley, Duchess of Northumberland.She was an English noblewoman, the wife of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland and mother of Guildford Dudley and Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester. Having grown up with her future husband, who was her father's ward, she married at about age 16. They had 13 children. Jane Dudley served as a lady-in-waiting at the court of Henry VIII and was a close friend of Queen Catherine Parr. Reformed in religious outlook, she was also a supporter of the Protestant martyr Anne Askew.Under the young King Edward VI John Dudley became one of the most powerful politicians, rising to be Earl of Warwick and later Duke of Northumberland. After the fall of Lord Protector Somerset in 1549, Jane Dudley joined forces with his wife to promote his rehabilitation and a reconciliation between their families, which was symbolized by a marriage between their children. In the spring of 1553 Jane Dudley, Duchess of Northumberland became the mother-in-law of Lady Jane Grey, whom the Duke of Northumberland unsuccessfully tried to establish on the English throne after the death of Edward VI. Mary I being victorious, the Duchess sought frantically to save her husband's life. Notwithstanding his and her son Guildford's executions, she was successful in achieving the release of the rest of her family by befriending the Spanish noblemen who came to England with Philip of Spain. She died soon afterwards, aged 46.
1559 – Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England in Westminster Abbey
1569 – Death of Katherine Knollys.She was chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I, who was her first cousin.Katherine's mother was Mary Boleyn, a mistress of Henry VIII before he courted and later married her sister Anne Boleyn, Henry's second Queen consort.Katherine's husband was Sir Francis Knollys, with whom she had 14 children.
1586 - Battle at Boxum: Spanish troops under Tassis beat state army
source:wikipedia/onthisdayintudorhistory.com,http://www.british-history.ac.uk/fanpop(Wallpaper of Anne Boleyn)