• 5 January 1367 – Birth of Richard II of England 

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    1387 –Death of  Peter IV of Aragon 

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    1412 –Birth of  Joan of Arc


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    1492 – The Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella enter Granada, completing the Reconquista.

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    1537 –Death of  Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence

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    1538-Birth of Jane Dormer, Duchess of Feria and lady-in-waiting to Mary I who, after the Queen's death, married Gómez Suárez de Figueroa y Córdoba, 1st Duke of Feria and went to live in Spain.

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    1540 – Wedding of King Henry VIII and  Anne of Cleves.

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    1579 – The Union of Arras is signed.

    The Union of Arras (Dutch: Unie van Atrecht, Spanish: Unión de Arrás) was an accord signed on 6 January 1579 in Arras (Atrecht), under which the southern states of the Netherlands, today in Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (and Picardy) régions in France and Belgium, expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II and recognized his Governor-General, Don Juan of Austria. It is to be distinguished from the Union of Utrecht, signed later in the same month.

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    These were the conditions:


    There should be no more garrisons of foreign troops;

    The Council of State should be organized like that of the time of Charles V;

    Two thirds of the council members should be installed by all member states consenting.

    All privileges that were in force before the Dutch Revolt should be reinstated.

    Catholicism was the only religion. Any other religion (i.e. Calvinism) should be abolished.

    The regions that signed it were:


    County of Hainaut

    County of Artois

    Lille, Douai and Orchies (Lilloise Flanders)

    Bishopric of Cambrai

    The regions that favored the Union, but did not sign it, were


    County of Namur,

    County of Luxembourg,

    Duchy of Limburg.

    Alexander Farnese, the Duke of Parma, used these counties as a base to start his conquest of the separatist parts (members of the Union of Utrecht).



  • 5 January 1400 – Death of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English politician 

    1448 – Death of Christopher of Bavaria


    1465 – Death of Charles, Duke of Orléans 

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    1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France.

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    1477 –Death of  Charles the Bold, French son of Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy

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    1500 – Duke Ludovico Sforza conquers Milan.

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    1511-The christening of Prince Henry, first son of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

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    "The christening of Prince Henry, first son of our sovereign lord King Henry the VIIIth."

    On New Year's Day, Wednesday, Dominical letter ., 1 Jan. a.m., 1510, 2 Hen. VIII., at Richmond in Sowthrey, was born Prince Henry, whose christening was deferred till Sunday 5 Jan., when from the Hall to the Friars was made, with barriers and rails, a way 24 ft. wide strewn with rushes, after being new-gravelled. All the south side of the way was "hangen" with cloth of arras, and near the Friars both sides were so hung, as was the body of the church. Godfathers were the French King Loys de Valoys and the Abp. of Canterbury, Warham. Godmother Margaret duchess of Savoy. "At the conformacion the Earl of Arrundell." My lord of Winchester was deputy for the French King and the Countess of Surrey for the Duchess. The French King gave a salt, 51 oz., and a cup 48½ oz., of fine gold; and to the Lady Mistress a chain worth 30l. and to the midwife 10l.


    1531- Clement VII. to Henry VIII.

    At the request of the Queen, forbids Henry to remarry until the decision of the case, and declares that if he does all issue will be illegitimate. Forbids any one in England, of ecclesiastical or secular dignity, universities, parliaments, courts of law, &c., to make any decision in an affair the judgment of which is reserved for the Holy See. The whole under pain of excommunication. As Henry would not receive a former citation, this is to be affixed to the church gates of Bruges, Tournay, and other towns in the Low Countries, which will be sufficient promulgation. Rome, 5 Jan. 1531.

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    1589 –Death of  Catherine de' Medici, Queen of France and wife of Henry II of France

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    She was the daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and of Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II. As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime she had extensive, if at times varying, influence in the political life of France. For a time she ruled France as its regent.


    In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude of France. Under the gallicised version of her name, Catherine de Médicis,she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favours on his chief mistress, Diane de Poitiers, who wielded much influence over him. Henry's death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life.


    Catherine's three sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France. The problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots, as they became known. She failed, however, to grasp the theological issues that drove their movement. Later, she resorted in frustration and anger to hard-line policies against them.In return, she came to be blamed for the excessive persecutions carried out under her sons' rule, in particular for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout France.


    Some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was always limited by the effects of the civil wars. Her policies, therefore, may be seen as desperate measures to keep the Valois monarchy on the throne at all costs, and her patronage of the arts as an attempt to glorify a monarchy whose prestige was in steep decline.Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power.The years in which they reigned have been called "the age of Catherine de' Medici".According to one of her biographers Mark Strage, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe.


  • 4 January 1490 – Anne of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the King of France will be considered guilty of the crime of lèse-majesté.

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    1532- Chapuys to Charles V.

    Dr. Benet, as he was about to leave, sent word to the Queen that he begged she would pardon him for having solicited against her; to which he had been compelled, and still was so, but that in good will she had no better servant, nor any one who prayed God more heartily for the preservation of her royal estate, in which she certainly would remain, notwithstanding all the King and his agents could do; and that now or never was the right season to use every effort with the Emperor in her behalf, seeing the coolness and cowardice of the Pope, for her affairs were never in better condition.

    She has accordingly commanded me to ask your Majesty to write to the Pope and others who have charge of this affair, although she wrote herself to your Majesty with my last letters four days ago.

    On the evening of Monday, the 1st, there arrived a servant of Dr. Benet, who left on 17 Dec. with news that the Pope had ordered the advocates of the King and Queen to discuss the admission of the excusator at the first Consistory after Twelfth Day, and that his Holiness had spoken severely to the ambassadors of the King's treatment of the Queen for the last five or six months. The King was displeased at this, and on Tuesday sent Dr. Faulx (Foxe) to complain to the Nuncio of his having written about his treatment of the Queen, as he had always treated her well and royally, and had not diminished her retinue nor income : neither the Pope nor the Imperialists had any business to meddle with such things : the Imperialists said she was his wife, and, if so, it was as lawful for him as for other husbands to command his wife to live for some time apart, for reasons which could not be published to every one. The Nuncio replied that he did not think he had written anything that he ought not to write, and that he would speak to the King next day.

    Yesterday, when the Nuncio was at Court, the King spoke to him in the same manner, and gave him particulars of the Queen's treatment. The Nuncio denied having written anything except what was notorious; he believed what the King said, but, if he would recall the Queen to Court, it would not prejudice his case, and would shut the mouths of 100,000 persons. At this the King seemed confused, and nearly in tears, and said he had sent her away so as not to injure his cause, and because she used such high words and was always speaking of the Emperor in a half-threatening way. In answer to the Nuncio's enquiries, the King would not say whether Benet had brought a proxy (procure), but he said he had come on private affairs, which is not true, and that he had sent him with a full declaration of his will. He complained of the short delays that were given, though he acquitted the Pope of ill will, and attributed his actions to his fear of the Emperor. The Nuncio said he had heard that the Pope was astonished that he had not informed him of the King's soliciting the French king to declare war upon the Emperor; to which the King replied that these were falsehoods.

    Though the Queen has been forbidden to write or send messages to the King, she sent him the other day by "son novel," or one of his chamber, a gold cup as a present, with honorable and humble words; but the King refused it, and was displeased with the person who presented it. Two or three hours afterwards he looked at it, and praised its fashion; and, fearing that the person who presented it would return it to the Queen's messenger, and that the latter might make a present of it publicly to the other, who could not refuse it, he ordered it not to be returned till the evening; and so it was sent back to the Queen. The King has sent her no present, and has forbidden the Council and others to do so, as is usual. He used to send New Year's presents (mander lc nouvel an) to the ladies of the Queen and Princess, but this has not been done this year. Thus they will lower the state of both, unless there is speedy remedy. He has not been so discourteous to the Lady, who has presented him with certain darts, of Biscayan fashion, richly ornamented. In return, he gave her a room hung with cloth of gold and silver, and crimson satin with rich embroideries. She is lodged where the Queen used to be, and is accompanied by almost as many ladies as if she were Queen.

    The King has at last granted to the Auditor De la Roche, who was sent by the Pope to Scotland, leave to go thither, and to grant dispensations and other faculties in England. He may have done this to cause him and the Nuncio to send a better report of his treatment of the Queen to Rome, for he has despatched a courier thither this morning, and he has come to take the Nuncio's packet, although they assure me that there is no business of importance. London, 4 Jan. 1532.


    1581 – Birth of James Ussher, Irish archbishop 

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  • 2 January 1492 – Reconquista: the Emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.


    1514 – Death of William Smyth, English bishop

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    1536 – Eustace Chapuys visited the dying Catherine of Aragon

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    1538-Mary Duchess of Richmond to Cromwell.

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    Since her husband died a year and a half past, her father, under whose tuition she is, has often promised to be a suitor to the King for her dower; without any good effect to her. Begs Cromwell's help. About a fortnight past, she wrote to her father asking leave to come up and sue to the King for herself; but had "so short an answer" that she is in despair. Begs him to deliver the "humble supplication" he shall receive herewith, to the King, to remit the cause to the judges and the Council. But one thing, as her counsel say, delays the matter—that she cannot have out the writs. Trusts in Cromwell's mediation. Kenyngal, 2 Jan.


    1539 - Geoffrey Pole, son of Sir Richard Pole and Margaret Pole,was pardoned after attempting suicide.


    1554 – Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger and Sir Peter Carew were summoned to appear before Mary I's privy council.


    1585 - Spain and Catholic France sign Saint League of Joinville


    1602 - Spanish force in Ireland surrender to the English army at Kinsdale


    3 January 1431 - Joan of Arc handed over to Bishop Pierre Cauchon

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    1437-Death of Catherine of Valois, Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. She was the daughter of Charles VI of France, wife of Henry V of England,mother of Henry VI of England, and through her secret marriage with Owen Tudor, the grandmother of Henry VII of England.Catherine's older sister Isabella was queen of England from 1396 until 1399, as the child bride of Richard II.

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    1496 - Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests a flying machine.

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    1521 – Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.

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    1533-Chapuys to Charles V.

    Received, three days ago, the Emperor's letters of 7 Nov., with postscripts of 16th Nov. and 6th Dec. Informed the Queen of the good news therein, which was the most agreeable New Year's present she could have. She will write herself at the first opportunity.

    Has not been able to find out more about what was done at the interview between the two Kings.

    The Scotch ambassador, who is of his master's council and chamber, and a man of sense and virtue, discovered that the intention of the English was merely to amuse them with a show of peace, and thus gain time for preparations, and therefore returned home eight days ago. He is very ill pleased, not so much at his failure to conclude peace, and obtain the reparation for which he asked, as because, notwithstanding the King's promise that the English should not invade Scotland, the earl of Northumberland, the earl of Douglas (Angus), and his brother, all made raids on the same day, burning and killing, and carrying off many cattle and prisoners. When the Ambassador complained of it they said the raid had occurred before the captain had received the orders. The Ambassador was not contented with this excuse, and would not stop longer. At his departure the King made use of harsh language and threats ; to which the Ambassador replied, coldly and discreetly, that he had not come to bandy words ; that it was clear it was not right, but the confidence given by the new alliance with France and the earl of Douglas, which caused the King to leave the straight road of friendship. The Scotch were not rich in goods, but they were rich in courage, and had not given France an occasion to break so good and sincere a friendship for one which was patched up and new ; even if it were so he trusted that they would defend themselves well. Every one considers these words a declaration of war. Hears on good authority that the King is determined on war if the French will not interfere. His pretext is to replace the earl of Douglas, so that he may cause discord among the Scotch, and prevent their injuring him now that he is going to complete the folly of his new marriage.

    Did not dare to send his men to visit the Ambassador, and therefore sent to him by a Scotch physician to say that he was sorry there was no opportunity of their seeing and entertaining each other, considering the friendship between their masters and the new brotherhood by reason of the order. He took this well, and offered to visit Chapuys, but he would not receive his visit. The Doctor said that the Ambassador did not think that the French would help them, but he did not care much for that, as generally the aid of the French did more harm than good.

    The English on the borders who made the last raid are 15,000 in number. The expense must be great. Hears from a man who saw the money prepared, that the King, soon after his return from Calais, sent them 100,000 cr., and eight days afterwards 40,000.

    The King sends a doctor of low quality to the king of Denmark and Hamburgh, but only on the affair mentioned in his last letter.

    The Queen has been informed that the King repents having sent her away so far, and thinks God has inspired him to acknowledge his error. But she is quite wrong, for the repentance is only caused by the infamy and the murmurs of the people, and principally by the expense of keeping so many houses. He continually complains of this, and has already begun to diminish the expense of his retinue. Perhaps also the repentance is caused by fear that when the Pope is at Bologna with the Emperor he will give sentence against him, or at least decree a brief ordering him to take back the Queen. He fears having an adverse sentence shortly, and thinks of having another passed by his estates, or at least of appealing to a Council, which will never be held. He despairs of his case at Rome, and shows this by not wishing to give audience to the Nuncio. Though he said he would send for him, he has not done so.

    At this feast the Queen's chaplain,who was imprisoned for writing and preaching in her favor, has been liberated on condition that he neither writes nor preaches till a fortnight after Easter. The jewels which the Queen lent the King have not been returned. Asks the Emperor to consider his private affairs, of which Grandvelle will inform him. London, 3 Jan. 1533


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    1534-Chapuys to Charles V.


    The little pamphlet  composed by the Council, which I lately sent to your Majesty, is only a preamble and prologue of others more important, which are now being printed. One is called Defensorium Pacis, written in favor of the emperor Loys, of Bavaria, against apostolic authority. Formerly no one dared read it, for fear of being burnt, but now it is translated into English so that all the people may see and understand it. The other is entitled, “Concerning Royal and Priestly Authority,” and proves that bishops ought to be equal to other priests, except in precedence and in the honor showed them in church, and that kings and princes ought to be sovereign over churchmen, according to the ancient law. which is the point most agreeable to the King, and have the administration of their temporal goods. The King will certainly try to put this last in execution, as well on account of his hatred for churchmen as from covetousness, and will be urged on by the Lady and his Council. In order to encroach upon the sovereignty over the Church it has been proposed to give the archbishop of Canterbury the seal of the Chancery, and pass bulls, dispensations, and other provisions under it. If the Pope had been as diligent as these people are in trying to serve him this trick, there would have been no question of such disorders. Your Majesty may consider that since God has abandoned these people, and allowed them to do such execrable acts, and taken away their senses, there is fear for the safety of the Queen and Princess, as they would think that when these persons were dead, they would be free from all trouble on the part of your Majesty. Every one here fears this. Being unable to apply any other remedy, I thought of causing a third person to show to Cremuel, Norfolk and others of the Council, that though your Majesty should be urged on by the Spaniards, and yourself wished to declare war (of which, however. there was no question at all), there was no fear of a war while the Queen lived, as she daily charged me to beg you not to think of making war on her behalf, as she would rather die. I should also let them know, in the same way that it would cause suspicion if anything happended either to her or to the Princess. I have not yet had an opportunity of putting this into practice, and have been waiting to hear the Queen's advice.

    The King's chief purpose in composing this book is to justify himself to the people and gain their favor; but he is mistaken, for he has only irritated them more, even those who are slightly contaminated with Lutheranism. Cremuel showed one of the books to the Scotch ambassador, who said that if the councillors of Scotland had done such a thing they would have been all burnt without mercy, and with good cause.

    Two Scotch bishop and an earl are expected shortly, to treat of peace. It is thought they may ask for the Princess as a wife for their King. If the peace depends upon that, they will conclude nothing, as the King will never consent. The ambassador here has already spoken of it, saying that even if she is a bastard, as they wish to make her, she is so virtuous and of such a family, that, the King: would not care for more. The bishop of Paris has not stayed here as long as was expected. He left the morrow of Innocents' day. it does not seem as if he had done much, and he has only had half the present the Kins intended to give him. a sign that he did not bring all the news the King wished, or that he spoke too much against the pamphlet.

    The doctor of whom I last wrote (fn. 4) has not yet left. It is said he will go tomorrow. I have not been able to find out anything about his charge more than the conjectures in my last letters.

    I was told that the King was sending another to Germany  to stir up the Lutheran princes and cities, so as to give your Majesty trouble, and prevent you from attacking him, which is the thing he fears most in the world, as he knows that then he would not be master either of his subjects or of their goods, as he is now, nor have opportunity to attend to his own affairs, (“et quil ne luy donnera a entendre a ses affaires.”) While he has the power of taking what he wants from his subjects, he will not cease to make plots against your Majesty. I have been told of a thing that seems unlikely, but as my informant is an honest man I mention it. It is that the King intends to cause the Lutheran princes and cities of Germany to make war on the Pope and descend into Italy. The French king will then send an army to Italy on pretence of defending the Church, and the two armies will join and march where Francis thinks best.

    It is said that the King has intelligence with the duke of Ferrara and others who are opposed to the Pope. I believe he will do everything he can without spending much money; but he has not much talent that way, being more stingy than he was, and besides he has not much money, if the goods of the Church and the taxes which he wishes to impose do not help him.

    I hear that the King means to remove the Queen to the house already appointed for her. She does not advise me to speak to him, for if I speak firmly he may be irritated, and speaking mildly will only encourage him. If the personage sent by your Majesty were to arrive soon, it would prevent her ill-treatment and confirm the goodwill of good people, who, as I hear from several quarters, are astonished at the delay in sending someone.

    The Princess has only one chamber-woman with her, and is in the worst lodging of the house. The people regret their treatment, and seem to be on the watch to move at the first favorable opportunity. Many of them soy this openly. All men of judgment, either at the Court or elsewhere, are dismayed. The Vice-Chamberlain (Sir John Gage), who is of the Council, and one of the wisest and most experienced in war of the whole kingdom, has renounced his office and gone to a charterhouse, intending, with the consent of his wife, to become a Carthusian. The bishop of Lincoln, who was at the beginning one of the promoters of the divorce, has said several times since Christmas that he would rather be the poorest man in the world than ever have been the King's councillor and confessor. London, 3 Jan. 1534.


    1540 – Official reception of Anne of Cleves at Greenwich Palace

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    1541 – Anne of Cleves visited Henry VIII and Catherine Howard at Hampton Court Palace

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    1541 – Death of John Clerk, English bishop. He was educated at Cambridge University,and went on to serve under Cardinal Wolsey in a variety of capacities. He was also useful in a diplomatic capacity to both Wolsey and Henry VIII of England.


    1590 – Death of Robert Boyd, Scottish noble and courtier




  • May your New Year be a New Year that brings luck,love and prosperity, a New Year that brings happiness and joy. Happy New Year! 


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    1st January 1431 – Birth of Pope Alexander VI

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    1438 – Albert II of Habsburg is crowned King of Hungary.


    1449 – Birth of Lorenzo de' Medici.He was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance.Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (Lorenzo il Magnifico) by contemporary Florentines, he was a magnate, diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists, and poets. He is perhaps best known for his contribution to the art world, sponsoring artists such as Botticelli and Michelangelo. His life coincided with the mature phase of Italian Renaissance and his death coincided with the end of the Golden Age of Florence.The fragile peace he helped maintain between the various Italian states collapsed with his death. Lorenzo de' Medici is buried in the Medici Chapel in Florence.

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    1504 - King Louis XII loses last bulwark in Naples, Caeta


    1511 – Birth of Henry, Duke of Cornwall . He was born on 1 January 1511 at Richmond Palace, eighteen months after his parents' wedding and coronation, and was the first son and first living child born to King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Catherine had previously given birth to a stillborn daughter, on 31 January 1510. He was christened on 5 January in a lavish ceremony where beacons were lit in his honour. The christening gifts included a fine gold salt holder and cup weighing a total 99 ounces, given by Louis XII of France, his godfather.His other godparents were William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy. At the christening, the baby prince's great-aunt Lady Anne Howard stood proxy for Margaret of Habsburg, and Richard Foxe Bishop of Winchester stood proxy for the French King.

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    1514 – Death of Louis XII of France,husband of Mary Tudor and father of Claude,queen of France.He was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498.Louis was proclaimed "Father of the People" (French: Le Père du Peuple) in 1506 by the Estates-General of Tours for his reduction of the tax known as taille, legal reforms, and civil peace within France.He was married to Joan of France and Anne, Duchess of Brittany

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    1515 – King François I of France succeeds to the French throne.

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    1519-Henry VIII to Wolsey

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    "Myne awne good Cardinall, I recommande me unto yow as hartely as hart can thynke. So it is that by cause wryttyng to me is somewhat tedius and paynefull, therfor the most part off thes bysynesses I have commyttyd to our trusty counseler thys berrer, to be declaryd to yow by mowthe, to whyche we wollde yow shulde gyff credens. Nevertheles to thys that folowith I thowght nott best to make hym pryve, nor nonother but yow and I, whyche is that I wolde yow shuld make good watche on the duke off Suffolke, on the duke of Bukyngam, on my lord off Northe Omberland, on my lord off Darby, on my lord off Wylshere and on others whyche yow thynke suspecte, to see what they do with thes nwes. No more to yow at thys tyme, but sapienti pauca. Wryttyne with the hand off your lovyng master. Henry R."


    1524-.Anne Boleyn to Sir Thomas Boleyn

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    "Monssr. Je antandue par v[ost]re lettre que a ves envy que touss onette fame quan Je vindre a la courte et mavertisses que la Rene prendra la pein de de visser a vecc moy de quoy me Regoy bine fort de penser parler a vecc vng perscone tante sage et onnetecela me ferra a voyr plus grante anuy de continuer a parler bene franssais et oussy espel especy ale man pour suc que mellaues tant Recammande et de me man vous a versty que les gardere le meux que Je poure Monssr Je vous suppllya descusser sy ma lettre et male et sipta  car je vous asure quete et ottografie de monantend amant sule la (vne les auttres ne sont faiz  que escript de maman et Semmonet me dit la lettre mes domeura fan je le fie moy meme de peur que lone ne saces sance que Je vous mande et Je vous pry que le loumire de vu  vue net libertte de separe la voullante que dites aves de me edere car hile me samble quettes ascure on lue la ou vous poues sy vous plet me vere de clarasion de v[ost]re paroile et de moy coues sertene que miara cuoffice de peres ne din gratitude que sut en passer ne et fasere mon a veccsion quecte de libere deviere autont sance que vous plera me commander et vous prommes que mon amour et vondue par vng sy grant fermette quele nara James pouer de sane deminuer et feres fin a mon pourpon a pres mettre Recommande bine humblemente a v[ost]re bone grace et scripte a Veure de

    V[ost]re tres humble et tres obeiss 

    fille Anna de Boullan."


    "Sir, I understand by your letter that you desire that I shall be a worthy woman when I come to the Court and you inform me that the Queen will take the trouble to converse with me, which rejoices me much to think of talking with a person so wise and worthy. This will make me have greater desire to continue speaking French well and also spell, especially because you have enjoined it on me, and with my own hand I inform you that I will observe it the best I can. Sir, I beg you to excuse me if my letter is badly written, for I assure you that the orthography is from my own understanding alone, while the others were only written by my hand, and Semmonet tells me he letter but waits so that I may do it myself…Written at Veure by Your very humble and very obedient daughter, Anna de Boullan."


    1531-Chapuys to Charles V.

    I wrote yesterday. Today I received yours of the 5th and 12th ult., of which I informed the Queen, who will write to your Majesty. I could not have better intelligence with the Nuncio than I have had hitherto, and your Majesty's letter will incite him to persevere. The death of Madame (Margaret) is regretted by those who have intercourse with Flanders. I am told the king of England said it was no great loss for the world. He delights in everything that is to the disadvantage of your Majesty; but these are not things to take notice of, for the blindness of his miserable amour makes him talk indiscreetly. One reason why he is glad of Madame's death is because she took great interest in the Queen's matter, and also because she was the real means of concluding the amity with France. One of the things which made the King and his Council enquire of me most particularly was, when any one came from France to the said Lady, to know what was doing. By order of the Council of Malines, I sent a messenger to the duke of Norfolk to inform the King of her death, to which I only received a reply that the King knew it already. The Duke inquired of my messenger if it was true your Majesty was coming in post to Flanders, and if the Turks had raised the siege of Buda, and, thirdly, in what place you had received the French ransom. The messenger replied, that as to the first he did not know; that the second was not true, and it was said Buda had been taken, and that the Vayvode had retreated to a castle which was already offering to treat. (At this Norfolk seemed surprised and not well pleased.) As to the third, that the ransom was paid at Medina del Campo. The Duke would affirm that the Spaniards would not let it go out of the country : to which my messenger replied that Spain had already lent the Emperor a large sum of money, and had offered to keep it for him safely with the ransom where the Emperor pleased. At this the Duke remained pensive and silent.

    Some time ago the Queen told me that what displeases them most here is when they see I don't trouble myself much to make court to them; and she has sent to me today desiring that unless there be something urgent to speak to the King about, I should not visit him; for which reason I have abstained during these holidays. London, 1 Jan. 1531.

    P.S.I have just heard from a well-informed man that this marriage will undoubtedly be accomplished in this Parliament, and that they expect easily to pacify your Majesty. I cannot tell upon what they rest this expectation, as I have always told them distinctly the opposite, and shall do still before the game is concluded.

    The lady feels assured of it. She is braver than a lion. She said to one of the Queen's ladies that she wished all the Spaniards in the world were in the sea; and on the other replying, that, for the honor of the Queen, she should not say so, she said that she did not care anything for the Queen, and would rather see her hanged than acknowledge her as her mistress.

    The King is to be at the Tower on the day after Epiphany to examine the ordnance (munition), in order to inspire fear both in Englishmen and strangers. People are somewhat glad here of your Majesty's coming to Flanders, hoping that the King may have an interview with you, and that he might be able to obtain from you what his ambassador could not obtain at Bologna; but their satisfaction is not so great as their fear of the injury that you may do them, being so near; and, as I wrote to your Majesty, if you would examine the fortifications in Flanders and on the frontiers, it would encourage good men, and make bad men fear.

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    1535-Chapuys to Charles V.

    There is little to write, but as a messenger is going, must mention that, as no reply has come from the Emperor, and Darcy had not yet been able to get leave to retire to his country, Chapuys had refrained (je me suis deppousché) from sending to him, considering the danger of any intelligence between them being detected. Nor did Darcy send anyone to Chapuys till three days ago, when he sent a priest of his, who comes from Hainault, for news, saying that there was nothing he desired more than to speak with me when he should have got leave to retire to his country. He sent by the priest a handsome sword as a present, which I fancy was to indicate indirectly that times were ripe "pour jouer des couteaulx." I am the more inclined to believe in a hidden meaning, because he had long before sent me a gold pensée, well enamelled, begging me to keep it. I doubt not he will be very glad to hear that the earl of Northumberland is not too well pleased either with the King or with his ministers, as the said Earl's physician informed me two days ago, declaring that his master had said the whole realm was so indignant at the oppressions and enormities now practised, that if the Emperor would make the smallest effort, the King would be ruined. The King's only hope was in the Turk, of whose strength those here shamefully boast. The Earl then began to enlarge on the arrogance and malice of the King's lady, saying that lately she had spoken such shameful words to the duke of Norfolk as one would not address to a dog, so that he was compelled to quit the chamber. In his indignation he declared himself to one to whom he did not generally show good-will, and uttered reproaches against the said Lady, of which the least was to call her "grande putain." In the evening there arrived from Scotland one who had been my servant. He was bringing letters from your Majesty's ambassador in Scotland, but they were taken from him at the frontier. He said he had seen the said ambassador embark for Flanders. The ambassador had been well received. He said also they were very angry at the French for refusing the marriage promised to the King. With the said man returned from Scotland a nuncio of the late Pope, who did not venture to go by sea, and was taken at the frontier. There is some talk that the King means to send into Scotland, I know not for what, "mais il ne fault qui ce soit matiere ou il faille esperit ne arest presque (parceque?) il est question que le Sr Vuillyam frere du duc de Norfforc est celluy que doit avoir la charge." The Princess has been informed that, by virtue of the statute lately passed, which has been made more severe against those who refuse to swear and acknowledge the second mar riage, after these holydays she must renounce her title and take the oath, and that on pain of her life she must not call herself Princess or her mother Queen, but that if ever she does she will be sent to the Tower. She will never change her purpose, nor the Queen either. The Council here, owing to what has been discovered in France touching the Zwinglian heresy, have prohibited a book printed here a year ago in English, which is full of the said heresy. I am told also that of late the Chancellor has caused 15 books of the New Testament in English to be burned. Booksellers have been forbidden to sell or keep a prognostication lately made in Flanders, which threatens the King with war and misfortune this year; and some of the leading men of the Council have said that, matters being as they are, nothing is wanted to set the realm topsy turvy but to translate and publish the said prognostication in English. The Governor and Burgomaster of Belguez (Berghes) have come with a good company to treat, as it is said, in anticipation of the "festes" which are held at Belguez. I am told the King and Council care little about their coming, giving the people to understand that they have come for fear the English take other measures, and that they would not obey the Emperor if he forbade intercourse. I am told a kinsman of Kildare made overtures to deliver him to the King's men; and Kildare, being informed of it, gave such a banquet to those who watched him as they intended to give him,—took 500 or 600 of them along with his said kinsman, and sent them to execution. I am inclined to think this true, because of late Cromwell has several times said that before many days the said Kildare would be brought hither prisoner. London, 1 Jan. 1535.


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    1540 – Meeting of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves at Rochester

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    1556 – Nicholas Heath  became Mary I’s Lord Chancellor

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    1559 – Death of Christian III of Denmark