• 22 October 1383 – Death of Ferdinand I of Portugal



    23 October 1456 – Death of John of Capistrano, Italian priest and saint 


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    1516 – Birth of Charlotte of Valois,second daughter of King Francis I and  Claude of France.


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    1520 - King Carlos I crowned German emperor Charles V


    1588 - Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada returns to Santander




    24 October 1492 - 24 Jews are burned at stake in Mecklenburg Germany


    1503 – Birth of Isabella of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress.She was an Infanta of Portugal, by birth, and a Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Germany, Italy, Spain, Naples and Sicily, Duchess of Burgundy etc. as the spouse of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and Maria of Aragon. She served as regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse for long periods.

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    1525 – Death of Thomas Dacre, 2nd Baron Dacre of Gilsland


    1537 – Death of Jane Seymour,Queen of England from 1536 to 1537 as the third wife of King Henry VIII. She succeeded Anne Boleyn as queen consort following the latter's execution for high treason, incest and adultery in May 1536. She died of postnatal complications less than two weeks after the birth of her only child, a son who reigned as Edward VI. She was the only one of Henry's wives to receive a queen's funeral, and his only consort to be buried beside him in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. She was the only wife of Henry VIII whose son survived infancy.

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    1561 – Birth of Anthony Babington, English leader of the Babington Plot 


    1572 – Death of Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, English admiral and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire

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    1590 – John White, the governor of the second Roanoke Colony, returns to England after an unsuccessful search for the "lost" colonists.




    25 October 1154 – Henry II becomes King of England.


    1415 – The army of Henry V of England defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt.

     Killed in the Battle of Agincourt:

    Charles I of Albret

    Philip II, Count of Nevers 

    Frederick I, Count of Vaudémont 

    Jean I, Duke of Alençon 

    Anthony, Duke of Brabant 

    Michael de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk 

    Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York 

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    1478 – Death of Catherine of Bosnia

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    1495 –Death of  John II of Portugal 

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    1510 – Birth of Renée of France.She was the younger surviving child of Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany. She was the Duchess of Ferrara due to her marriage to Ercole II d'Este, grandson of Pope Alexander VI. In her later life she became an important supporter of the Protestant reformation and ally of John Calvin.

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    1514 – Death of William Elphinstone, Scottish bishop, founded University of Aberdeen 


    1529-Thomas More became lord chancellor

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    1532 – Henry VIII arrived back at Calais with Francis I


    1555 – Charles V abdicated a number of his titles


    1557 – Death of William Cavendish, English courtier 

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    1577 - Pope Gregory XIII asks renewal of ecclesiastical hymns


    1596 - Spanish fleet sails from Lisbon to Ireland




  • 19 October1432 – Death of John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, English politician 

    1466 – The Thirteen Years' War ends with the Second Treaty of Thorn.

    1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.

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    1512 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).

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    1562 – Birth of George Abbot, English archbishop

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    20 October 1496 – Birth of Claude, Duke of Guise

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    1524 – Thomas Linacre, English physician and scholar

    1548 – The city of Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace) is founded by Alonso de Mendoza by appointment of the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

    1572 – Relief of Goes, Cristóbal de Mondragón with 3000 soldiers of the Spanish Tercios, release the siege of the city.



    21 october 1422 – Death of Charles VI of France

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    1449 – Birth of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence,he was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of English Kings Edward IV and Richard III. He played an important role in the dynastic struggle between rival factions of the Plantagenets known as the Wars of the Roses.On 11 July 1469, Clarence married Isabel Neville, elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.In 1475 Clarence's wife Isabel gave birth to a son, Edward, later Earl of Warwick.George was "privately executed" at the Tower on 18 February 1478, and soon after the event, the rumour gained ground that he was drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine

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    1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.

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    1520 – Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan.

    1520 – João Álvares Fagundes discovers the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, bestowing them their original name of "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins".

    1527 –Birth of Louis I, Cardinal of Guise

    1532 – Henry VIII left Anne Boleyn in Calais to spend four days with Francis I

    1554 – Death of John Dudley, 2nd Earl of Warwick



  • 17 October 1346 – Battle of Neville's Cross: King David II of Scotland is captured by the English near Durham, and imprisoned in the Tower of London for eleven years.


    1404 - Cosma de' Migliorati elected Pope Innocentius VII


    1483 - Tomas de Torquemada appointed inquisitor-general of Spain


    1575 – Death of Gaspar Cervantes de Gaeta, Spanish cardinal 


    1582 –Birth of Johann Gerhard, German theologian


    1586 –Death of  Philip Sidney, English courtier and general




    18 October 1540 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto's forces destroy the fortified town of Mabila in present-day Alabama, killing Tuskaloosa.


    1541 – Death of Margaret Tudor,Queen of Scotland.She was the elder of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503, she married James IV, King of Scots. James died in 1513, and their son became King James V. She married secondly Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus. Through her first and second marriages, respectively, Margaret was the grandmother of both Mary, Queen of Scots, and Mary's second husband, Lord Darnley. Margaret's marriage to James IV foreshadowed the Union of the Crowns - their great-grandson, King James VI of Scotland, the child of Mary and Darnley, also became the king of England and Ireland on the death of Margaret's fraternal niece, Elizabeth I of England in 1603.

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    1555 – Elizabeth Tudor leave the court and travel to Hatfield

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    1558 – Death of Mary of Hungary

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    1572 - Spanish troops attack Maastricht


    1595 –Birth of  Edward Winslow, English politician, 3rd Governor of Plymouth Colony

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    1599 – Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the Army of Andrew Báthory in the Battle of Şelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanian people.



  • 16 October 1396 –Birth of  William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, English admiral 

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    1430 –Birth of  James II of Scotland 

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    1555 –The Burnings of Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley at Oxford

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    On September 30, 1555, Ridley and Latimer appeared together in Oxford before a panel of bishops to answer the charges of heresy that had been brought against them. Ridley was examined first.

    The Bishop of Lincoln began by urging Ridley to recant and submit himself to the Pope. “If you will renounce your errors, recant your heretical seditious opinions, consent to yield yourself to the undoubted faith and truth of the gospel…authority is given to us to receive you, to reconcile you, and upon due penance to join you into Christ’s Church.” The bishop stressed three points”

    That the Pope was descended from Peter, who was the foundation of the Church.

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    That the early Church fathers confessed the Pope’s supremacy in their writings.

    That Ridley once believed this himself.

    Ridley replied to the three points. First, he said, it was not Peter who was the Church’s foundation, but Peter’s confession that Christ was the Son of God. This belief is the foundation of the Church, not a mere man.

    Secondly, the Bishop of Rome was supreme in the early Church because the city of Rome was supreme in the world of the day, not because he had any more religious power than other bishops. As long as the diocese of Rome was true to the gospel, its bishop deserved respect from everyone in the Church, but as soon as they began setting themselves above kings and emperors for their own honor, the bishops of Rome became anti-Christian.

    To the last point, Ridley admitted he did once believe as they did, just as Paul was once a prosecutor of Christ.

    The Bishop of Lincoln cut Ridley short, reminding him of the panel’s power to either accept him back into the Church or excommunicate him. Anything they did would receive the support of the queen, who was a faithful member of the Church. The following article were then put forward against him (and Latimer):

    He maintained that the true body of Christ was not present in the bread and wine.

    He taught that the bread and wine remained bread and wine after consecration.

    He believed that the mass is not a propitiatory sacrifice for the living and the dead.

    That Dr. Watson and others declared these beliefs heretical.

    That all of the above is true and well-known.

    Ridley was asked to reply to the charges with simple yes or no answers and was promised that he could amend his answers the next day, when he’d had more time to think about them. Before he answered, Ridley protested that whatever he said, he would be saying it unwillingly and his answering would not indicate that he accepted either the panel’s or the Pope’s authority over him.

    To the first charge, he said that Christ’s body and blood were present spiritually in the bread and wine, but not physically. To the second, he replied that the bread and wine remain bread and wine after consecration. To the third, he said that Christ made one perfect sacrifice for the sins of the whole world. Communion was an acceptable sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, but saying it removed man’s sin’s implied that Christ’s work was not enough. To the fourth, Ridley replied that his beliefs had been declared heretical by Dr. Watson, but unjustly. To the fifth, that he believed exactly what he said, although he didn’t know what everyone thought of his beliefs.

    Ridley was dismissed until the following day and Latimer was brought in. As with Ridley, the bishop urged Latimer to give up his beliefs and rejoin the Catholic Church, which was again universally accepted. He was then asked to reply to the same charges as Ridley.

    “I do not deny,” he said in answer to the first charge, “that in the sacrament, by spirit and grace, is the very body and blood of Christ. Every man receiving the bread or wine spiritually receives the body and blood of Christ. But I deny that the body and blood of Christ is in the sacrament the way you say it is.”

    To the second, he replied, “There is a change in the bread and wine, and yet the bread is still bread and wine is still wine.”

    On whether the mass is a sacrifice for sins, Latimer replied, “No. Christ made one perfect sacrifice. No one can offer Him up again. Neither can the priest offer Him for the sins of man, which He took away by offering Himself once for all upon the cross.”

    When Latimer was asked about his beliefs being called heresy, he replied, “Yes, I think they were condemned. But He that will judge us all knows they were condemned unjustly.” Latimer was also dismissed until eight o`clock the next morning.

    Ridley arrived on October 1 with his answers to the charges written out, asking permission to read them to the crowd that filled St. Mary’s Church. But he was forced to turn his papers over to the bishops first, and they declared them heretical, refusing to read them aloud. In return, Ridley refused to answer their questions, saying all his answers were contained in his written replies. He was condemned as a heretic and turned over to the secular authorities for punishment.

    Latimer was brought in. He agreed to answer the panel’s charges again, but his answers were the same as the day before and he refused to recant. He was also condemned and turned over to the authorities.

    The morning of October 15, the Bishop of Gloucester (Dr. Brooks) and the vice-chancellor of Oxford (Dr. Marshall), along with others from the university, arrived at Mayor Irish’s house, where Ridley was being held a prisoner. Ridley was given the opportunity to rejoin the Church. When he refused, they forced him to go through the ceremony expelling him from the priesthood. The ceremony over, Ridley read a petition to the queen asking that she help Ridley’s sister and brother-in-law and others who had depended on him for their support. Dr. Brooks promised to forward the petition to the queen, but doubted she would honor it.

    That night Ridley’s beard and legs were washed. At supper, he invited everyone in the mayor’s house to his burning, as well as his sister and brother. When the mayor’s wife began to cry, he comforted her by saying, “Quiet yourself. Though my breakfast will be somewhat sharp and painful, I’m sure my supper will be pleasant and sweet.”

    Ridley and Latimer were to be burned on the north side of Oxford, in a ditch by Baliol College, well guarded by the queen’s orders. When everything was ready, they were brought out by the mayor and bailiffs. Ridley wore a furred black gown, velvet nightcap, and slippers. Latimer wore a worn frock, a buttoned cap, and a new long shroud hanging down to his feet.

    Looking back, Ridley saw Latimer following him. “Oh. Are you here?” he called.

    “Yes. As fast as I can follow,” Latimer answered.

    Ridley reached the stake first. Holding up his hands, he first looked toward heaven. When Latimer arrived, Ridley ran to him cheerfully, held him, and kissed him, saying, “Be of good cheer, brother, for God will either assuage the fury of the flame or else strengthen us to bear it.” After they said their prayers, the two men talked quietly together for a little while, but no one knows what they said.

    The officers prevented Ridley and Latimer from answering the sermon that was given by Dr. Smith. They would be allowed to speak only if it were to recant.

    “Well, then,” said Ridley, “I commit our cause to Almighty God, who shall impartially judge all.”

    Latimer added, “Well, there is nothing hid but it shall be made manifest.”

    Ridley cheerfully gave away his clothing and other items he possessed, then asked Lord Williams to do what he could to help those who depended on him for their living. The chain was fastened around the two men. “Good fellow, tie it tight, for the flesh will have its way,” Ridley commented. Then his brother brought him a bag of gunpowder to hang around his neck.” I will take it to be sent by God, therefore I will receive it as sent of Him. And do you have some for my brother?” Told he did, Ridley, sent his brother to Latimer before it was too late. Then they brought a torch and laid it at Ridley’s feet.

    “Be of good comfort, brother Ridley, and play the man,” Latimer called. “We shall this day light such a candle by God’s grace in England, as I trust shall never be put out.”

    When Ridley saw the flames leap up, he cried with a loud voice, “Lord into They hands I commend my spirit. Lord, receive my spirit!”

    Latimer cried as vehemently on the other said, “O Father of heaven, receive my soul!” He received the flame as if embracing it. After he stroked his face with his hands and bathed them a little in the fire, Latimer died with little visible pain.

    But Ridley suffered longer because the fire did not flare up on his side of the stake, and he called out to them, asking them to let the fire come to him. His brother-in-law, misunderstanding the problem, covered Ridley with even more wood, which made the fire burn stronger on the bottom but kept it from flaring up as it should have. It burned all Ridley’s lower parts before ever touching his upper body, which made him leap up and down under the wood piled around him as he cried, “I cannot burn!” Even after his legs were consumed, his shirt was still untouched by the flames. He suffered in terrible pain until one of the onlookers pulled off the wood that was smothering the flames. When Ridley saw the fire flame up, he leaned toward it until the gunpowder exploded. He moved no more after that, falling down at Latimer’s feet.

    The sight of Ridley and Latimer’s struggle moved hundreds in the crowd to tears, seeing years of study and knowledge, all the godly virtues, so much dignity and honor – all consumed in one moment. Well, they are gone, and the rewards of this world they already have. What a reward remains for them in heaven on the day of the Lord’s glory, when He comes with His saints!


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    1590 – Carlo Gesualdo, composer, Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza, murders his wife, Donna Maria d'Avalos, and her lover Fabrizio Carafa, the Duke of Andria at the Palazzo San Severo in Naples.

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    1591 – Death of Pope Gregory XIV

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  • 15 october 1529 – The Siege of Vienna ends as the Austrians rout the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire.


    1537 – Christening of Prince Edward

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    "The christening of Prince Edward, the most dearest son of King Henry the VIIIth of yt name."

    "By the provision of God, Our Lady Mary, and the glorious martyr S. George, on the 12 day of October, the feast of St. Wilfrid, the vigil of St. Edward, which was on the Friday, about two o'clock in the morning, was born at Hampton Court Edward son to King Henry the VIIIth"

    Incontinent after the birth Te Deum was sung in Paul's and other churches of the city, and great fires [were made] in every street, and goodly banquetting and triumphing cheer with shooting of guns all day and night, and messengers were sent to all the estates and cities of the realm, to whom were given great gifts.

    "The preparations ordained for the said christening at Hampton Court." Describing minutely the course of the procession and the decorations of the chapel, with the positions occupied by the officers of the household (Sir John Russell, Sir Fras. Bryan, Sir Nic. Carew, and Sir Ant. Browne in aprons and towels were to take charge of the font until discharged by the lord Steward, or, in his absence, the Treasurer of the Household). The order of going to the christening was: First, certain gentlemen two and two bearing torches not lighted until the prince be Christened. Then the children and ministers of the King's chapel, with the dean, "not singing going outward." Gentlemen esquires and knights two and two. Chaplains of dignity two and two. Abbots and bishops. The King's councillors. Lords two and two. The comptroller and treasurer of the Household. The ambassadors. The three lords chamberlains and the lord Chamberlain of England in the midst. The lord Cromwell, being lord Privy Seal, and the lord Chancellor. The duke of Norfolk and abp. of Canterbury. A pair of covered basins borne by the earl of Sussex, supported by the lord Montague. A "taper of virgin wax borne by the earl of Wiltshire in a towel about his neck." A salt of gold similarly borne by the earl of Essex. "Then the crysome richly garnished borne by the lady Elizabeth, the King's daughter: the same lady for her tender age was borne by the viscount Beauchamp with the assistance of the lord."  Then the Prince borne under the canopy by the lady marquis of Exeter, assisted by the duke of Suffolk and the marquis her husband. The lady mistress went between the prince and the supporter. The train of the Prince's robe borne by the earl of Arundel and sustained by the lord William Howard." "The nurse to go equally with the supporter of the train, and with her the midwife." The canopy over the Prince borne by Sir Edw. Nevyll, Sir John Wallop, Ric. Long, Thomas Semere, Henry Knyvet, and Mr. Ratclif, of the Privy Chamber. The "tortayes" of virgin wax borne about the canopy by Sir Humph. Foster, Robt. Turwytt, George Harper, and Ric. Sowthwell. Next after the canopy my lady Mary, being lady godmother, her train borne by lady Kingston. All the other ladies of honour in their degrees.

    When the Prince was christened all the torches were lighted and Garter King at Arms proclaimed his name (proclamation verbatim, titles duke of Cornwall and earl of Chester). "This done, this service following was in time the Prince was making ready in his traverse, and Te Deum sung":—First, to the lady Mary the lord William to give the towel and the lord Fytzwater to bear covered basins, and the lord Montagew to uncover. Item, to the bishop that doth administer, the lord Butler to bear the towel, the lord Bray to bear the basins and the lord Delaware to uncover. To the duke of Norfolk and abp. of Canterbury, godfathers, the lord Sturton to bear the towel and the lord Went worth to give the water. To serve the ladies Mary and Elizabeth with spices, wafers, and wine: the lord Hastings to bear the cup to lady Mary, and the lord Delaware that to lady Elizabeth; lord Dacres of the South to bear the spice plates to both, lord Cobham the wafers, and lord Montagew  to uncover the spice plate. The bishop that doth administer, the duke of Norfolk and abp. of Canterbury, godfathers at the font, and the duke of Suffolk, godfather at the confirmation, to be likewise served by knights appointed by the lord Chamberlain. All other estates and gentles within the church were served with spice and ypocras, and all other had bread and sweet wine.

    The going homeward was like the coming outward, saving that the taper, salt and basin were left and the gifts of the gossips carried, i.e. Lady Mary, a cup of gold borne by the earl of Essex; the archbishop, 3 great bowls and 2 great pots, silver and gilt, borne by the earl of Wiltshire; Norfolk, ditto, borne by the earl of Sussex; Suffolk, 2 great flagons and 2 great pots, silver and gilt, borne by Viscount Beauchamp. Lady Elizabeth went with her sister Lady Mary and Lady Herbert of Troy to bear the train. Sounding of the trumpets. Taking of "assayes." The Prince was then borne to the King and Queen and had the blessing of God, Our Lady, and St. George,  and his father and mother; and the same day the King gave great largess.

    ii. The names of all estates and gentlemen present at the christening.

    The lord Chancellor. Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk. Marquis of Exeter. Lord Cromwell, lord Privy Seal.  Earls of Arundel, Oxford, Essex, Wiltshire, and Sussex. Viscount Beauchamp. Lords Howard, Admiral, Delaware, Sandes, Bray, Montagewe,‡ Sturton; Hongerforth of Hechbury, Cobham, Dacre of the South, Montjoye, Fitzwater, Hastings and Butler. The abp. of Canterbury. Bishops of London, Lincoln, Rochester, Chichester, St. Asse, and Carlisle. [Abbots of Westminster, St. Albans, Waltham, Towerhill and Stratford].  Mr. Henage, Sir John Russell, Sir Francis Bryan, Sir Nich. Carowe, Sir Thomas Cheyny, Sir Ant. Browne, Sir John Walloppe, Ric. Long, Thos. Semere, Hen. Knyvet, Peter Meutus, Sir Humph. Foster, Geo. Harper, John Welsborne, Rog. Ratclif, Ant. Knyvet, Rob. Turwytte, Sir Humph. Ratclif, Sir John Sentjohn, Sir Thos. Rotheram, John Williams, Ralph Verney, Sir Wm. Essex, Sir Ant. Hongerford, Sir Wm. Barnden (in another hand "ou Baratyn"), Sir Walt. Stoner, Sir John Brown, Sir John Bouchier, Sir Edw. Baynton, [Sir Henry Bayngton], Sir Hen. Long, Sir Wm. Kingiston, Sir John Briggis, Sir Nich. Poyntes, Sir Walt. Deynis, Ant. Kyngston, Sir John Sentlowe, Sir Hugh Paullet, Sir Giles Strangwishe, Sir Thos. Arundell, Sir John Horsey, Sir John Rogers, Sir Wm. Paullet, John Paullet, Sir John Gage, Sir Wm. Goryn, Sir Edw. Nevill, Sir John Dudley, Sir Willm. Haulte, Sir Edw. Hutton, Sir Wm. Kempe, Sir Thos. Poynynges, John Norton, Sir Ric. Weston, Sir Ric. Page, Sir Giles Capell, Sir John Rainsforth, Sir Thos. Darcy, Sir John Sentleger, Sir John Turrell, Wm. Sailiard, Sir Chr. Willoughby, Sir Ric. Sandes, Sir Geo. Somerset, Sir Arth. Hopton, Sir Ant. Wingfeld, Sir Wm. Drury, Edw. Chamberlain, Ric. Sowthwill, Sir Hen. Parker, Sir Griffith Dunne, Sir Ph. Butler, Sir Rob. Payton, Sir Giles Alington, Thos. Meggis, Thos. Wriothesley, Ric. Manners. The dean of St. Stephen's, archd. of Richmond, dean of Exeter, dean of Windsor, dean of Sarum, Dr. Bell, Thurlbee, Dr. Turryt, Mr. Patte, Dr. Wilson, Dr. Skippe, and Dr. Daye.

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    1542 – Death of William Fitzwilliam, Earl of Southampton,English courtier,he was the third son of Sir Thomas FitzWilliam of Aldwark and Lady Lucy Neville (daughter of the Marquess of Montagu).

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    1581 - Commissioned by Catherine De Medici, the 1st ballet "Ballet Comique de la Reine", is staged in Paris

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