• Today in Tudor history...

    07 June 1394-Death of Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II of England

    Today in Tudor history...

    1515- Spinelly to Henry VIII


    Wrote last on the 2nd. Sends letters from Wingfield. The Pope, the Emperor and the King of Arragon do [not] pull together; in the business of Genoa the Pope favors the French. "The Emperor's going towards Italy is a great likelihood of such alteration." Does not know the cause. The letters of Dr. Tunstal and the other Commissioners will inform him of their proceedings about the intercourse. The Provost of Cassel showed him last night a letter of the Audiencer, dated Dordryk, 2 June, by which it appears that Dissilstyne and his fleet did not dare cross to Friesland because the navy of the Duke of Gueldres and the Earl of Offerend was twice as strong as theirs, and that the places there which they had received from the Duke of Savoy were in danger from want of victuals. The Pope, influenced by the Cardinal St. Severin and the French ambassadors, has refused the dispensation demanded by Nassaw for his marriage. Wherefore it is conjectured that the Prince's affairs with France have but a small ground, as appears by the Duke of Gueldres' demeanor. The Provost supposes that the French do not set much by that treaty, seeing the contradiction of the Emperor and King of Arragon, and the young age of the prince and daughter of France, thinking they have profited by the presence of his ambassadors and by putting diffidence between the Emperor, Arragon [and the] Swiss. Finally, he said, the Frenchmen would do no good to this house, and that the daughter of Orange will not be allowed to leave France, and that Nassaw will marry Lord Fynes' daughter. All things considered, Henry's affairs are in better train than appearance has hitherto showed. Bruges, 7 June 1515.


    1520 - First day of the Field of Cloth of Gold./Le camp du drap d'or

    Today in Tudor history...

    The Field of the Cloth of Gold or Camp du Drap d'Or is the name given to a place in Balinghem, between Guînes and Ardres, in France, near Calais, that was the site of a meeting that took place from 7 June to 24 June 1520, between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France.

    Today in Tudor history...

    The meeting was arranged to increase the bond of friendship between the two kings following the Anglo-French treaty of 1514. The form "Field of Cloth of Gold" has been in general use in the English language since at least the 18th century. These two monarchs would meet again in 1532 to arrange Francis' assistance in pressuring Pope Clement VII to pronounce Henry's first marriage as illegitimate.


    Under the guidance of English Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, the chief nations of Europe sought to outlaw war forever among Christian nations. Mattingly (1938) studied the causes of wars in that era, finding that such nonaggression treaties could never be stronger than the armies of their sponsors. When those forces were about equal, these treaties typically widened the conflict. That is, diplomacy could sometimes postpone war, but could not prevent wars based on irreconcilable interests and ambitions. What was lacking, Mattingly concludes, was a neutral power whose judgements were generally accepted by either impartial justice or by overwhelming force.


    The site is indicated by a commemorative plaque on the Route de Marquise. The site, though now in France, was at the time regarded as part of England. This was probably the main reason for it as the choice of meeting place, being English territory but surrounded by France rendering it as close to neutral territory as was practicable.


    Location of the Field of cloth of Gold:https://www.google.com/maps/place/50%C2%B051'08.3%22N+1%C2%B055'22.4%22E/@50.8523,1.9229,15z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x0:0x0


    Today in Tudor history...

    Letter dated Ardres, 7th June 1520, describing the interview between his most Christian Majesty and the King of England.

    On the morning of the 7th June Cardinal Wolsey went to King Francis and dined with him, after which he departed, accompanied a good way by the Admiral, the Master of the Horse, and the Marshal de Chatillon. At about 5 p.m. two pieces of artillery were discharged as a signal, notifying to the King of England that King Francis was then taking to horse, and thus did he; King Henry on the other hand firing a third gun.

    King Francis rode a very beautiful bay horse, caparisoned with embroidery and pearls. He himself wore a doublet of very costly cloth of gold and a cloak of the same material, and his jerkin, embroidered and slashed, was of great value. On his breast he wore sundry rich and beautiful jewels, and likewise on his cap, which was of black velvet. He was preceded by the military trumpeters, the fifers, and horn players, who performed one after the other. After the musicians came a great number of gentlemen of the Chamber and Wardrobe, all richly clad in cloths of gold and silver slashed in a variety of fashions, many of them having gold chains round their necks. The Switzers followed in battle array, with their drum major, and then came the King's macers, also in slashed garments of cloth of gold and silk, with massive gold chains of various sorts. The King followed, and was immediately in advance of the ambassadors and the princes of the blood royal and the barons, all in doublets of gold “soprarico,” many of which were slashed, exhibiting other gold beneath, and many wore cloaks like the King. Amongst the rest was the Admiral, who, besides gold and silver “soprarizi,” had a sailor's gold whistle at his side, adorned with pearls and jewels of great price, his cap being decorated in like manner. Last of all came the archer guard on horseback. Outside Ardres a file of many gentlemen in pairs, who preceded all the others, were drawn up and ranged on the left-hand side. At no great distance from the town were the Queen and Madame [Louise] in a litter, they having come to see the pomp of France, and when the King drew nigh he quitted the ranks, conversing awhile with his mother, cap in hand, and then returned to his place. The procession rode thus for a league and half, and at length reached a hill overlooking a valley in whose hollow was a very costly and beautiful tent, and beyond was another similar eminence, on which were seen assembled all the attendants of the King of England, who came in the following order:—First, some 60 mounted bowmen with their bows and arrows, the King's guard, followed by well-nigh as many more, the guard of Cardinal Wolsey, whose gentlemen followed, all dressed in crimson velvet, with gold chains round their necks; next the trumpeters; then a good number of gentlemen well arrayed in brocade of gold, silver, and silk, all with chains; and then the sackbuts followed in advance of the barons and lords of the kingdom, who were dressed in gold “soprarizo” with massive chains, and in the midst of them were the ambassadors. Then came the King with his running footmen, in number six, dressed in crimson velvet and gold, the footmen of King Francis being clad in white velvet and silver.

    King Henry wore cloth of very rich silver, “soprarizo” and a cap with black feathers, the feathers in the cap of King Francis being also black. King Henry rode a bay horse of the breed of the Duke of Termini, with trappings like those of King Francis, and perhaps more rich in jewels; his Majesty himself wearing a jewelled collar in lieu of a chain, of great value, and a jewelled belt besides no less costly.

    To the left of the King was Cardinal Wolsey, preceded by two crosses, his Lordship being dressed in crimson satin.

    Then followed eight coursers, the handsomest ever seen in the world, all trapped in various fashions, rich and superb, and ridden by pages clad in brocade and crimson velvet.

    The cavalcade, having proceeded thus for some while, arrived at a level, where from 300 to 400 infantry were drawn up, and placed the King in their centre, they being dressed in velvet and cloth, and having no other weapon than the sword, with the exception of some hundred in front, who carried halberts.

    In this array the English company reached the hill, and ranged themselves along its summit, the French doing the like in the opposite direction. Many of the attendants were sent back, most especially on the French side, because so great an amount of persons caused suspicion to King Henry, on which account certain gentlemen carried messages to and fro, as the French in like manner took umbrage at so great an amount of infantry. But everything was at length arranged; and when the Kings arrived at their respective hills, the trumpets sounded from both one and the other, and their Majesties immediately commenced descending. King Francis was accompanied by the Admiral and the Constable, the latter carrying the naked sword in his hand; another official doing the like by King Henry, who was also accompanied by Cardinal Wolsey. When the two sovereigns were within a stone's throw of each other, they spurred their horses, and cap in hand embraced mutually, but the hot temper of the horses keeping them apart, they returned to the embrace, and simultaneously, without waiting for the running footmen (two of whom accompanied each sovereign) to hold their stirrups, dismounted with the greatest possible agility, and again gracefully embraced and kissed each other, cap in hand, evincing great affection.

    The attendants in like manner dismounted, and the two Kings, arm in arm, proceeded to the door of the tent, into which King Francis wished King Henry to enter first, but he refused, and during the contest both Kings remained cap in hand, and at length King-Francis took precedence, without, however, once quitting the arm of King Henry. Having thus entered the tent, they remained there about two hours, and then ordered the collation, after which Cardinal Wolsey called some of the chief personages of his retinue that they might pay their respects to King Francis, who had already quitted the tent together with King Henry, and he embraced them all. Then the Admiral called some of the chief French personages, who were very graciously embraced by King Henry, the French and English lords doing the like by each other, with profound obeisances down to the ground; whereupon another collation was served, and they drank together, both parties presenting another batch of noblemen, who all went on foot like the first, and were embraced by both their Majesties. All the gentlemen, especially the French, were served with as much beverage as they pleased.

    A great number of horsemen then descended into the valley from both sides, and went to see the two Kings. The writer went down [from the French side], and remarked the extreme courtesy which prevailed. The two Kings at length mounted on horseback, embracing each other again and again, cap in hand, and took leave, King Francis embracing the English noblemen, and King Henry the Frenchmen. And thus they quitted each other, the English returning a distance of one mile to Guisnes, and King Francis to Ardres, where he arrived after nightfall. On the return his horse kicked the Admiral on the leg and the English ambassador also, but they were not seriously injured.

    The magnificence of the two Kings and of their noblemen was great and incredible, but the French excelled the English, both in apparel and horses, although the English had many gold chains, which were not usual in France.

    It is said a banquet will be given on Sunday the 10th; then on Monday the jousts will commence, after which other tournaments were to be held.

    The noblemen of France had pitched tents near Ardres; two, under which King Francis would lodge, were of cloth of gold.

    Ardres, 7th June 1520

    Today in Tudor history...

     Letter from the Court of France to the Magnifico Pietro Montemerlo, Royal Senator.

    On Tuesday the 5th of June, the King of England came from Calais to Guisnes with the Queen and the whole court, accompanied by about 50 gentlemen. He rode a bay courser, and wore a garment of brocade ribbed with crimson satin, and on his head a hat trimmed with black feathers. He is a very handsome King, both in face and figure, and has a red beard, and his countenance resembles that of Giovanni Cristoforo Troto.

    The Queen rode near him, on a palfrey, with the ladies; then came her litter of cloth of gold, followed by many other ladies; then a waggon (careta) covered with cloth of gold, drawn by six coursers; then ladies; and then three other similar waggons, of three colours, all covered with cloth of gold. The ladies were 20 in all, including Queen Mary, widow of King Lewis of France.

    After the ladies came all the body-guard, namely, 200 archers; one half bowmen, and the other halberdiers, with doublets of green velvet and white satin; the breasts of the doublets being covered, like ours, with the King's arms, a rose surmounted by the crown.

    On the Wednesday, at about the 20th hour, the English King mounted on horseback with some 50 archers and 100 gentlemen, and went to the lists appointed for the jousts. He had with him six coursers, trapped with crimson velvet, all covered with roses of beaten gold, and little bells; a fine sight. On arriving at the lists he made trial of the horses one after another, and he afterwards ran them one against the other, laughing the whole time, being in truth very merry, and he remained in the lists for upwards of two hours. Whilst there he was visited by Mons. de Chateaubriand, the brother “our” Mons. de Lautrec, and by other great personages, to whom he gave the best possible greeting.

    Today, when the first conference was held, I went to Guisnes to see the procession of the King of England, which was as follows:—

    First there were 2,000 in doublets, forming one batallion, handsome men, and in good array, with swords and bucklers, forming the vanguard; then the King's archers, 200 in number, with halberts. Next came some 400 gentlemen, all dressed in velvet, either black or crimson, and all wearing massive chains round their necks. They were followed by the lords (signori) of England, of whom not more than six or eight wore gold brocade; and including that material and “bigaroto,” those thus clad did not exceed 20 in number. Next came 12 mace bearers, then 12 trumpeters in green and white damask, then 12 heralds, all with the arms of England. The Constable of England followed with the drawn sword, preceding the King, who rode a light bay courser, and was dressed in a very beautiful doublet of cloth of silver, with a hood of cloth of gold at the back of his head, on which he wore a cap of black velvet, with a black feather which encircled the brim of the cap. He had 12 stirrup-men, dressed in brocade and crimson velvet. Beside him was the Cardinal, after whom came two pages in doublets, half of cloth of gold and half of crimson, riding seven coursers, the handsomest ever seen, all trapped alike with gold and silver, the King's own horse being trapped in like manner. In this order they marched a foot's pace.

    Having seen this procession I went to witness that of our King, which was in this fashion. There were no footmen, but about 400 horses, all gentlemen in good trim, the doublets of cloth of gold being in the proportion of 20 to 1 of any other material. Then came the Switzers with their feathers in their caps, reaching to the clouds; then the 12 trumpeters or “miquelets” with 12 heralds, and the trombones, who played the whole time. They were followed by the Duke of Lorraine, Alençon, Yendome, La Trimouille, the Admiral, Mons. de S. Pol, the Marshals, and several other lords, all covered with stiff gold brocade. Then Mons. de Lautrec and his two brothers, Mons. de L'Esparre and L'Escu, and Chateaubriand, with doublets of stiff cloth of gold, and over the doublets a simar of brocatel, all four in one fashion. Then the Constable in a doublet of stiff brocade, bearing the drawn sword in advance of the King, the Constable being preceded by the Master of the Horse, the latter and his horse being both covered with much embroidery.

    Next came the most Christian King, on a courser whose trapper was completely covered with gold. He wore a doublet of stiff brocade, with a simar like that of Mons. de Lautrec, but of black brocade, all covered with precious stones. By his side were 12 stirrup-men, clad in brocatel with his device; and then followed a great crowd of gentlemen, and the archers and the captains, all glittering with gold. In this array the two Kings arrived at the site appointed for the conference. The place is a valley within the English Pale, called anciently “the Vale of Gold” (vol de oro), in the centre of which was a tent of cloth of gold on crimson, belonging to the King of England. But first they were to meet at the distance of a stone's throw from the tent, at a spear fixed in the ground.

    At each extremity of the valley is a hill, the two hills being of equal height; the one French, the other English.

    The two Kings descended from their respective hills simultaneously into the valley. They were accompanied solely by the two Constables with the drawn swords, and each had two stirrup-men. When at the distance of about 12 paces from each other, the King of England doffed his bonnet, and urged his horse forward, and the most Christian King did the like. Having embraced and said a few words, they then dismounted, and after again embracing and remaining thus a short while in each others arms, they then moved towards the tent, our King being always on the right hand. They entered the tent talking and laughing, followed by the English Cardinal and the Admiral. After remaining there for an hour, the Constable of England introduced our Constable; shortly after which the Kings came forth. Then the princes of both nations paid their respects to the Kings, the “Viscontino”[Anchises Visconti?] making his appearance dressed in the Albanian fashion, which pleased much. The Kings remained until after sunset, then again embraced and mounted on horseback, and repeated their embraces, being apparently unable to quit each other.

    Dated 7th June


    Today in Tudor history...

     Interview between King Francis I. and King Henry VIII.

    On the 7th of the month of June 1520, the festival of the Corpus Domini, the two Kings of England and France held their first conference in a field situate between the Castle of Ardres, belonging to the King of France, and that of Guisnes, belonging to the King of England. The King of France made his appearance richly clad. . . . . . . He rode a beautiful tall Spanish horse, all black, richly trapped. . . . . .

    The King quitted Ardres with his retinue about the 21st hour. On his road, near the gate outside the town, the Queen and Madame [Louise], with a great number of ladies and princesses, were placed to see him pass; and when in front of Madame, he went out of the line, cap in hand, and spoke to her, uncovered; and then, having received her blessing, he proceeded to the site of the conference, being constantly met by English lords and gentlemen sent to do him honour by the King of England; to whom in like manner French noblemen went on behalf of their sovereign. The bands of the captains of the archers of the King of France, with Monsr. de la Trimouille and Monsr. de la Palisse, kept back the crowd, and prevented others than those appointed from coming to the spot. . . . . . . . .

    The procession of the King of England was as follows:—First, 60 archers on horseback with their bows and arrows, being the King's guard; and as many more, the body-guard of Cardinal Wolsey, followed. Next came the Cardinal's gentlemen, all in crimson velvet, with gold chains round their necks; then the trumpeters; then a number of gentlemen in gold and silver brocade, all with their chains, and in the midst the ambassadors according to their grades. Next came the King in person, with six stirrup-men in crimson velvet and gold; the stirrup-men of the most Christian King being in cloth of silver and white velvet. The King of England wore cloth of silver, and feathers on his head, with a jewelled collar of great value round his neck in lieu of a chain, besides which he had a girdle of great price. He rode a very beautiful bay horse, with trappings like those of the most Christian King, and perhaps more richly jewelled. Cardinal Wolsey was on the left hand of his Majesty, and in advance of him two silver crosses were borne; he was clad in crimson satin. Eight coursers followed, the handsomest ever seen, all trapped in different fashions, but costly and superb; they were ridden by pages in brocade with crimson velvet. The King having moved processionally thus, met in a field a band of from 3,000 to 4,000 footmen, who joined and followed him. These footmen had only their swords, and were dressed in various liveries, being preceded by others with halberts, all dressed alike in velvet and cloth. In this order the English drew up on the ridge of the hill; the French being opposite to them on the corresponding eminence. Into the valley formed by these two hills the most Christian King descended, accompanied only by Monsr. de Bourbon, High Constable, the Admiral [Bonnivet], and the Master of the Horse [San Severino].

    The King of England in like manner descended, accompanied by Cardinal Wolsey, the High Constable [Marquis of Dorset], and the Master of the Horse [Sir Henry Guylford].

    The two Kings met each other on horseback, and having embraced and kissed, and exchanged a few words, cap in hand, they simultaneously dismounted, and again embraced thrice, bowing to each other with marks of very great love; and, arm in arm, they entered a tent of cloth of gold belonging to the King of England, where they remained together alone for about an hour, being occasionally joined by Cardinal Wolsey and the Admiral of France.

    Whilst the Kings remained in the tent, a number of silver-gilt cups were brought, nearly six feet high,full of excellent wine, and other large gilt bowls with feet (piedi) of such a size that the hand could scarcely hold them; also spice cakes (un pocho forte). Liquor was distributed to all who would accept it, and they drank much, both on account of the heat and the great crowd. When the Kings came forth from the tent, the collation was served to them standing, and many lords and gentlemen from both sides descended into the valley on foot to the spot, the King of France embracing the Englishmen, and the King of England doing the like by the Frenchmen; and when the Kings returned to their lodgings it was already dark.

    On the morrow, the 8th, when the three guns were fired as the appointed signal for departure, the two Kings proceeded with a small retinue to the site of the interview held on the preceding day to arrange the jousts by common consent; and they remained together for four hours, the collation being served with less ceremony than on the day before.

    On the following Sunday the most Christian King went to Guis-nes, and the King of England to Ardres; the latter dining with the Queen of France, and the former with the Queen of England at a spot immediately outside the town of Guisnes, and over a bridge which traversed the moat.

    The principle entrance of the Castle of Guisnes leads into a square court-yard, of which each side measures about 50 paces. Here, to the height of some three paces from the ground, the foundations are built of bricks, which support a planked floor, strewed all over with rushes, it being the custom thus to cover all the floors in England. Above this floor, externally, the building is partly of wood and partly of stones in squares, having the appearance of a real wall. This palace represents a square as aforesaid, and is divided into halls, saloons, and chambers, leading one into the other. Throughout the palace is adorned with silk and red roses, and the emblems of the King of England; and the platforms were similarly ornamented. But marvellous were the tapestries with which the whole palace was hung; all of gold and silk; some representing figures, others foliage, which it would not be possible to paint more beautifully; the figures really seemed alive

    Outside this palace is a chapel completely covered with tissue (restagno) of gold and silver. On one side of the chapel is an altar, dedicated to the saint whose name the King bears, and on the other a similar altar consecrated to the Queen's patroness, both being most richly adorned with admirably painted altar-pieces, and ornaments necessary for the altar, all of massive gold, such as crosses, chalices, patens, paxes, basins, crewets, censers, and the like. The cloths in front of the altars are embroidered with pearls and precious stones of inestimable price. There are also two desks, at which the King and Queen kneel during the mass, the space being enclosed with cloth of gold, the canopy and cushions being of the same material. From these two great desks, through two large windows, there is visible the lower chapel, marvellously adorned with tapestry in like manner, with a highly decorated altar, where there are the seats of the chaplains who sing the mass and other divine services.

    The King of France dined in the palace with the Queen of England. They were seated at the centre of the table opposite to each other under a costly canopy. Cardinal Wolsey dined at one of the extremities of the table. On the other side, some three yards distant from King Francis, the sister of the King of England, la Blanche Reine Mary*, widow of the late King Lewis, now Duchess of Suffolk, was placed; and no other person sat at the table. The viands were more dainty and exquisite than can be told, and their description is therefore omitted. Constantly during dinner the most excellent vocal and instrumental music was heard; a better performance was not possible. In the other halls a number of Lords and Princes who had accompanied the most Christian King dined, and after dinner there was a ball until night, the King himself dancing, and part of the time he made love to the ladies there

    The like form of feasting and dancing was observed with regard the King of England by the Queen of France at Ardres; the Cardinal de Boissi sat at table with the King, instead of Cardinal Wolsey, and in lieu of la Blanche Reine the Duchess of Alençon, the most Christian King's sister. The decoration of this French palace was very beautiful, but neither so beautiful nor so costly as that of England, though as a match for the palace of Guisnes, the most Christian King pitched a marvellous tent, all of cloth of gold and tissue, with colours and figures, these cloths of gold being visible both within and without. As it was not completed on the 10th, the banquet took place in the palace within the town of Ardres.

    On the morrow, the 11th, the jousts commenced, and were attended by both the Queens, with a very great number of most noble ladies, all vieing with each other in beauty and ornamented apparel, and for love of them each of the jousters endeavoured to display his valour and prowess, in order to find more favour with his sweetheart. And thus did they assemble daily to witness sword-fighting on horseback and on foot, and other tournaments and representations of war.

    This lasted from the 11th of June to the 22nd, with interruptions on account of bad weather and other unavoidable causes. During this interval both parties kept open house like perfect friends, giving hope of good-will and union between these two nations, which for many years have been bred in hatred of each other; this change being effected through the wisdom and virtue of both the sovereigns, who are anxious for the peace of Christendom. . . . . .

    The above-mentioned entertainments being ended, Cardinal Wolsey, on Saturday the 23rd of June, sang a solemn mass in the presence of the Kings and Queens, and of all the other princes, lords, and ladies, on the site of the conference between the two sovereigns, after which he gave plenary indulgence to all present; and the first stone was laid for the foundation and erection of a beautiful Church, entitled, “Our Lady of Friendship” (nostra Dona de la Amistà), to be built, provided with sacerdotal ornaments, and endowed at the cost of the two Kings; and such a number of chaplains is to be appointed as shall seem fit to them.

    They also agreed, at their common cost, to build in that valley a very handsome palace, promising to visit each other there once every year.

    On the 24th, the day of St. John the Baptist, they separated, both being in tears (as were well nigh all the others), by reason of the tender love contracted by them reciprocally; the most Christian King returning to Paris, and the King of England to Calais; both being not a little anxious still to remain together.

    Every faithful Christian should pray God to render this fraternal union of the two Kings perpetual, for the benefit of Christendom and the advancement of our religion.


    Today in Tudor history...

    *Mary Tudor,sister of King Henry VIII


    1521- Leo X to Wolsey

    Thanks him for his efforts in extirpating the Lutheran heresy. Has learnt from the King's letters and those of the Nuncio, the bishop of Ascoli, that the Lutheran books have been burnt at a meeting of the most eminent persons of the realm, and before a great concourse of people. Thanks Wolsey for committing the administration of the see of Worcester to Julius de' Medici. Rome, 7 June 1521

    Today in Tudor history...

    1525 - Henry Fitzroy was made Knight of the Garter

    Today in Tudor history...

    1525-Small Monasteries are Suppressed by King Henry VIII


    1527 - Pope Clement VII surrenders to emperor Charles V's armies


    1532 - Birth of Amy Robsart,first wife of Lord Robert Dudley

    Today in Tudor history...

    Portrait miniature of an unknown lady, possibly Amy Robsart on the occasion of her wedding, 1550


    1533-Francis I. to the Bailly Of Troyes.


    Has received his letter of the 23rd. Desires him to tell Henry that he will follow his advice about informing the Germans of the proposed interview. In reference to the fear that the statute against matrimonial appeals to Rome would prevent the interview, considers, from what he hears from the cardinals Tournon and Grammont, that the interview is certain. It was, however, fixed to be held at Nice on July 15, but their letters of the 27th ult. say that the cardinals and physicians urge the Pope not to go to Nice in July on account of the heat, as, of 20 people who leave Rome then and fall ill, only three escape. The Pope was ready to adhere to the time fixed, but Francis has advised him to wait till the middle of August. Will spend the time at Mascon, Tournuz, and in the neighbourhood of Lyon. Has read the letters of the Bailly and Rostaing about the doings of the archbishop of Canterbury, and the intended coronation of the Queen at Whitsuntide. Lyons, 7 June 1533.

    Today in Tudor history...


    1534-Chapuys to Charles V.


    La Guiche has brought the resolution of the interview of the King his master with this king, which is to take place in August in the same place as the last. There is no talk of the ladies being present nor of much attendance. La Guiche left this morning on his return, and with him the Waywode's man, who goes to settle his despatch in the court of France. As to what the Queen sent to tell me yesterday, the King, since the remonstrances I last made to his Council, has shown himself more merciful, having set at liberty her confessor,  physician, apothecary and some others, which has been to her a great consolation; but much greater has been the letters which it pleased you to write to her. She has already sent to me three or four messengers, to entreat me earnestly to procure licence to go to her, for which I have begged as much as I possibly can, and Cromwell sent yesterday to tell me that as soon as two doctors whom the King had again sent to the Queen had returned, I should have an answer which ought to satisfy you. London, 7 June 1534.

    Today in Tudor history...

    Letters of protestation by princess Mary, dated 7 June 1534, against the treatment she had received in being declared illegitimate and deprived of the title of princess of Wales. Declares that she will not marry, enter a monastery or take any such step at the will of her father without the free consent of her mother.

    The following sentence and the signature are in her own hand: “Ita ut universa et singula in hac scriptura habentur, dicimus, narramus, asserimus, asseveramus ac pretestamur de mera nostra scientia ac matura deliberatione, teste meo manuali signo et sigillo meo.” The letters were sent to Eustache Chappuis, minister of the Emperor, and were authenticated by notarial attestation and signature of witnesses.

    Today in Tudor history...

    1536 - A water pageant was held in honour of Jane Seymour, the new queen, on the Thames.


     Princess Mary to Cromwell

    "Good Mr. Secretary, I think so long to hear some comfort from the King's grace, my father, whereby I may perceive his Grace of his princely goodness and fatherly pity to have accepted my letter and withdrawn his displeasure towards me, that nature moveth me to be so bold to send his Grace a token, which my servant, this bearer, hath to deliver to you." Begs he will find means that the King may send her a token, which will be her greatest comfort till she is permitted to come to his presence. From Hownsdon the 7 of June.

    Today in Tudor history...

    1546 - Henry VIII and Francis I signed the Treaty of Ardres


    1557 - England declares war on France


    1594-Execution of Rodrigo López.He was a Portuguese physician, who served Queen Elizabeth I. Robert Devereux accused Lopez of conspiring with Spanish emissaries to poison the Queen. He was arrested on January 1, 1594, convicted in February, and subsequently hanged, drawn and quartered on June 7

    Today in Tudor history...

    1654 - Louis XIV crowned King of France



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