Today in Tudor history...
08 June 1476 - Death of George Neville, archbishop of York and Chancellor of England, was the youngest son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and Alice Neville, 5th Countess of Salisbury. He was the brother of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, known as the "Kingmaker."
1492 - Death of Elizabeth Woodville, she was Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483. At the time of her birth, her family was mid-ranked in the English aristocracy. Her first marriage was to a minor supporter of the House of Lancaster, Sir John Grey of Groby; he died at the Second Battle of St Albans, leaving Elizabeth a widowed mother of two sons. Her second marriage, to Edward IV, was a cause célèbre of the day, thanks to Elizabeth's great beauty and lack of great estates. Edward was only the second King of England since the Norman Conquest to have married one of his subjects, and Elizabeth was the first such consort to be crowned Queen. Her marriage greatly enriched her siblings and children, but their advancement incurred the hostility of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, 'The Kingmaker', and his various alliances with the most senior figures in the increasingly-divided royal family.
This hostility turned into open discord between King Edward and Warwick, leading to a battle of wills that finally resulted in Warwick switching allegiance to the Lancastrian cause. Elizabeth remained politically influential even after her son, briefly proclaimed King Edward V of England, was deposed by her brother-in-law, Richard III, and she would play an important role in securing Henry VII's accession to the throne in 1485, which ended the Wars of the Roses. However, after 1485 she was forced to yield pre-eminence to Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, and her influence on events in these years, and her eventual departure from court into retirement, remains obscure.
Woodville's children included the Princes in the Tower and Elizabeth of York; by the latter she was maternal grandmother of Henry VIII and great-grandmother of King Edward VI, Queen Mary I of England and Queen Elizabeth I and the great-great-grandmother of Mary, Queen of Scots. Through her daughter, Elizabeth of York, she is the ancestor of every English monarch since Henry VIII and every Scottish monarch since James V of Scotland.
1533-Coronation Of Anne Boleyn.
"The receiving, conveying, and coronation of the Queen."
In consequence of letters from the King to the mayor and commonalty of London, desiring them to make preparations for escorting queen Anne from Greenwich to the Tower, and to make pageants in the city on [Whit] Sunday next, the day of the coronation, the common council ordered the Haberdashers, to which craft Sir Steven Pecock, the mayor, belonged, to prepare barges decked with targets and banners.
On May 29 the mayor and his brethren assembled at St. Mary Hill at one o'clock, and embarked on board their barges, of which there were 50, with "shalmes, shagbushes," and other instruments on board. Before the mayor's barge was a "foiste for a wafter," full of ordnance. In the foiste was a great red dragon casting wild fire, and round about terrible monsters and wild men. Another foiste contained the Queen's device, a mount, with a white falcon crowned standing thereon, upon a "rowte" of gold, environed with red and white roses. Round the mount sat virgins singing and playing. On their arrival at Greenwich, the Queen entered her barge at three o'clock, and the whole company rowed up to the Tower. About her barge were the duke of Suffolk, the marquis of Dorset, the earls of Wiltshire, Derby, Arundel, Rutland, Worcester, Huntingdon, Sussex, Oxford, and others, and many bishops and noblemen, in their barges. On the way the ships lying on the shore shot divers peals of guns, and before she landed there was a marvellous shot out of the Tower. At her landing she was met by the Lord Chamberlain and officers of arms, and brought to the King at the postern by the water side. He kissed her, and she turned back and thanked the mayor and citizens, and then entered the Tower. None of the citizens landed but the mayor, recorder, and two aldermen. The rest "hoved before the Tower, making great melody." Friday, 29th, the following gentlemen, who were appointed to be knights of the Bath, served the King at dinner, and were bathed and shriven according to custom ; the next day they were dubbed :—The marquis of Dorset, the earl of Derby, lords Clifford, Fitzwater, Hastings, Mountaigle, and Vaux, Sir Henry Parker, Sir Wm. Windesour, Sir John Mordaunt, Sir Francis Weston, Sir Thos. Arundell, Sir John Hudelston, Sir Thos. Poyninges, Sir Hen. Savell, Sir George Fitzwilliam, of Lincolnshire, Sir John Tyndall, Sir Thos. Jermey, [and one other, heir to lord Windsor. "President saith these six more, viz., Mr. Corbett, Mr. Wyndam, Mr. Barkeley, Mr. Verney, of Peuleye, John Germyne, and Robert Whytneye, of Gloucestershire ; but I think not." ]
Saturday, 31st. The receiving and conveying of the Queen through London.
The streets from the Tower to Temple Bar were gravelled to prevent the horses slipping, and railed on one side. The crafts stood along one side of the streets from Graces Church to the little conduit in Chepe, and on the other side the constables in velvet and silk, with great staves in their hands. The streets were hanged with tapestry, cloth of gold, and other hangings, and the windows were filled with ladies and gentlewomen. The order of the Queen's train was as follows : 12 Frenchmen belonging to the French ambassador ; then gentlemen, esquires and knights, two and two ; judges, knights of the Bath, abbots, barons, bishops, earls, marquises, the Lord Chancellor, the archbishop of York, Venetian ambassador, archbishop of Canterbury, French ambassador, two esquires of honor with robes and caps of estate representing the dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine ; the mayor of London ; Garter ; Lord Wm. Howard, deputy to his brother the duke of Norfolk, with the Marshal's rod ; Chas. duke of Suffolk, for that day high constable of England, bearing the verge of silver ; and the Queen's chancellor. On both sides of the lords rode serjeants and officers of arms. The Queen was in an open litter of white cloth of gold, drawn by two palfreys in white damask. She wore a surcoat and mantle of white cloth of tissue, the latter furred with ermines. Her hair was hanging down, but on her head was a coif with a circlet of rich stones. A canopy was borne over her by four knights. After the Queen came lord Borough, her chamberlain ; Sir Wm. Coffyn, master of her horses, leading a spare horse, with a side saddle ; seven ladies in crimson velvet and cloth of gold ; a chariot containing the old duchess of Norfolk, and the old "Marquesse Dorset" ; other ladies and gentlewomen in chariots and on horseback, and lastly the Guard, in coats of goldsmith's work. Along the road there were many pageants, which are fully described, representing mythological and allegorical subjects. The Cross in Cheapside, and the conduits there and in Fleet Street, and Ludgate and Temple Bar, were newly repaired and painted. At the Cross, Master Baker, the recorder, made a speech, and presented her with 1,000 marks in the name of the city. The children of St. Paul's school were placed on a scaffold erected at the east end of St. Paul's, and repeated poetry in honor of the King and Queen. The litter was carried into Westminster Hall, when she alighted and took her place at the high dais under the cloth of estate. A service of spice and "suttilties," with ypocras and other wines, was offered to her, which she sent to her ladies. After thanking those who had attended on her she withdrew to her chamber in the White Hall, and afterwards went secretly in her barge to the King at his manor of Westminster.
Whitsunday, June 1. The mayor, aldermen, sheriffs, and councillors left the city for Westminster at 7 a.m. Between eight and nine the Queen came into the Hall, and stood under the cloth of estate ; and then the King's chapel and the monks of Westminster came in with rich copes, with many bishops and abbots. The Queen then went to the high altar of Westminster, accompanied by the aldermen, barons, dukes and earls, bishops, &c. The marquis of Dorset bore the sceptre ; the earl of Arundel, the rod of ivory and the dove ; and the earl of Oxford, high chamberlain, the crown. The duke of Suffolk, being high steward of England for that day, bare a long white rod, and lord Wm. Howard the rod of the marshalship. The Queen wore a surcoat and robe of purple velvet, furred with ermine, wearing her hair with a coif and circlet as on the Saturday. Four of the Cinque Ports bore the canopy over her. The bishops of London and Winchester bare up the laps of her robe, and her train was borne by the old duchess of Norfolk, many other ladies following. She rested awhile in a rich chair between the choir and high altar, and then proceeded to the altar, where the archbishop of Canterbury crowned her with the crown of St. Edward, which being heavy, was taken off again, and the crown made for her put on. After mass was performed, she received the Sacrament, and offered at St. Edward's shrine. The company returned to Westminster Hall in the same order, the Queen being supported by the earl of Wiltshire and lord Talbot, deputy for the earl of Shrewsbury.
The order and sitting at dinner :—
The duke of Suffolk was high steward. Lord Wm. earl marshal, as deputy for his brother. The earl of Oxford, high chamberlain. The earl of Essex, carver. The earl of Sussex, sewer. The earl of Arundel, chief butler. The earl of Derby, cupbearer. Lord Lisle, panter. Lord of Burgayne, chief larder. Lord Bray, almoner. The mayor of Oxford kept the buttery bar. Thos. Wiat was chief sewer for his father, Sir Henry. The countess of Oxford, widow, and the Countess of Worcester, stood beside the Queen's chair, "which divers times in the dinner time did hold a fine cloth before the Queen's face when she list to spit or do otherwise at her pleasure." The archbishop of Canterbury sat on the Queen's right, and at her feet, under the table, two gentlewomen. The first course was brought in by the duke of Suffolk and Lord Wm. Howard, on horseback, the serjeants-of-arms, the sewer, and knights of the Bath. Account of the persons sitting at the different tables, and the number of dishes. The King and divers ambassadors looked on from a little closet out of the cloister of St. Stephen's. After dinner, wafers and ypocras were served ; and when the Queen had washed, the company meanwhile standing, the table was taken up, and the earl of Rutland brought up the surnape, which was drawn by Master Rede, marshal of the Hall. The earl of Sussex then brought a void of spice and confections, and the mayor of London a standing cup of gold, which she gave him after drinking therefrom. When she departed to her chamber, she gave the canopy to the barons of the Cinque Ports ; and then the mayor, and noblemen and gentlemen, departed, for it was six o'clock.
On Monday there were jousts at the tilt before the King's Gate. The mayor and his brethren had a goodly standing ; but there were few spears broken, as the horses would not couple.
On Wednesday the King sent for the mayor and his brethren to Westminster, and thanked them.
On the next leaf is a plan of the arrangement of the tables, with drawings of the Queen and archbishop of Canterbury at table, and the King looking on from the closet.
1533 - Papal authority in England was denied by Parliament.
1536-Charles V. to Chapuys.
We received, on the 5th, your letters of the 19th ult., and take it as very good service that you have so fully informed us of the contents besides what you have written to Granvelle; desiring you to continue to keep us informed of what you negociate on the matters of which we wrote to you by the secretary of the English ambassador here, and since by your man George, for until we have more certain knowledge we cannot tell what to say. We trust to your discretion to advise and assist the Princess our cousin as you have done hitherto. We send copies of the answer made by the French king to the Pope in reply to what we lately said to his Holiness at Rome, and also of the reply made by us to the said answer, which you may use with the King and Cromwell as you think best. Asti, 8 June 1536.
1536 - Parliament passed the second Act of Succession removing Henry VIII’s daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, from the line of succession.
1536-Ten Articles of Religion by Thomas Cranmer is Published
This document begins the process of defining the doctrinal distinctions between Roman Catholicism and the newly established Anglican Church.
1536-Princess Mary to Henry VIII.
Begs his daily blessing. Though she understands, to her inestimable comfort, that he has forgiven all her offences and withdrawn his displeasure long time conceived against her, her joy will not be full till she is allowed to come to his presence. Begs pardon for her continual suit and rude writing, for nature will suffer her to do no otherwise. Hopes God will preserve him and the Queen, and send them a prince. Hownsdon, 8 June.
1536 - Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, made his last public appearance (at Parliament) before his death.
1551 - Pope Julius III excommunicates Duke Ottario Farnese of Parma