Today in Tudor history...
10 June 1523 – Copenhagen is surrounded by the army of Frederick I of Denmark, as the city won't recognise him as the successor of Christian II of Denmark.
1536-Anne Boleyn's Execution.
Anonymous letter giving an account of the execution on Wednesday 17th May of lord Rochford, Weston, Brereton, Norris, and Smeton, and on Friday the 19th of Anne Boleyn; with a report of their speeches on the scaffold. After her execution the Council declared that the Queen's daughter was the child of her brother, and that she should be removed from her place and the daughter of the former again acknowledged as princess and successor in the kingdom; "and the King did so receive her with the utmost graciousness." London, 10 June 1536.
A copy of this tract, probably unique, belonging to the earl of Crawford and Balcarres, was exhibited at Aberdeen in the Loan Collection of MSS. at the time of the meeting of the British Association in 1885, and was collated with the letter in the Excerpta Historica for the Editor of this work by Mr. J. P. Edmond.
Princess Mary to Cromwell.
I send by the bearer, my servant, "both the King's Highness' letter, (Meaning her letter to the King's Highness) sealed, and the copy of the same, again to you." You will see I have followed your advice, and will do so in all things concerning my duty to the King, God and my conscience not offended; for I take you as one of my chief friends next his Grace and the Queen. I desire you, for Christ's passion, to find means that I be not moved to any further entry in this matter than I have done; for I assure you I have done the utmost my conscience will suffer me, and I neither desire nor intend to do less than I have done. "But if I be put to any more (I am plain with you as with my great friend) my said conscience will in no ways suffer me to consent thereunto." Except in this point, neither you nor any other shall be more desirous to have me obey the King than I shall be ready to do so. I had rather lose my life than displease him. I beg you to take this letter in good part. I would not have troubled you so much, but that the end of your letter caused me a little to fear I shall have more business hereafter. Hownsdon, 10 June.
Princess Mary to Henry VIII.
Begs his daily blessing. Has already, she trusts, obtained forgiveness on her suit, with licence to write to him; but hopes for some token or message of reconciliation, and that she may obtain her fervent desire of access to his presence. Excuses her importunity. Begs him to accept his penitent child, who henceforth puts her state and living in his mercy, next to Almighty God, under whatever conditions. Prays God preserve him and the Queen, and send them a prince. Hownsdon, 10 June.
Cromwell to Princess Mary.
"I have received your letters, whereby it appeareth you be in great discomfort, and do desire that I should find the means to speak with you." Your discomfort can be no greater than mine, who upon your letters have spoken so much of your repentance for your wilful obstinacy against the King, and of your humble submission to obey his pleasure and laws in all things without exception or qualification. Knowing how diversely and contrarily you have proceeded at the late being of his Majesty's Council with you, I am ashamed of what I have said and afraid of what I have done. What the sequel shall be God knows. With your folly you undo yourself, and I say to you, as I have said elsewhere heretofore, it were pity you should not be an example in punishment, "if you will make yourself an example in the contempt of God, your natural father and his laws by your only fantasie, contrary to the judgments and determinations of all men that ye must confess do know and love God as well as you." To be plain with you, I think you the most obstinate woman that ever was, and I dare not open my lips to name you unless I have such a ground thereto that it may appear you were mistaken, or at least that you repent your ingratitude and are ready to do your duty. I have therefore sent you a book of articles to subscribe, on receiving which from you again, with a letter declaring that you think in your heart as you have subscribed with your hand, I will venture to speak for your reconciliation. If you do not leave all sinister counsels, which have brought you to the point of undoing, I take leave of you for ever, and desire you to write to me no more; "for I will never think you other than the most ungrate, unnatural, and most obstinate person living, both to God and your most dear and benign father. And I advise you to nothing, but I beseech God never to help me if I know it not so certainly to be your bounden duty, by God's laws and man's laws, that I must needs judge that person that shall refuse it not meet to live in a Christian congregation; to the witness whereof I take Christ, whose mercy I refuse if I write anything unto you that I have not professed in my heart and know to be true."
1538 - Catholic German monarchy signs League of Neuremberg
1540 - Thomas Cromwell was arrested for high treason at a Council meeting and imprisoned in the Tower.A bill of attainder(an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them without privilege of a judicial trial) containing a long list of indictments, including supporting Anabaptists, protecting Prostestants accused of Heresy and thus failing to enforce the Act of Six Articles, and plotting to marry Lady Mary Tudor, was introduced into the House of Lords a week later, and was passed on 29 June 1540. He was also connected with 'sacramentarians'(those who denied transubstantiation) in Calais. All Cromwell's honours were forfeited. The King deferred the execution until his marriage to Anne of Cleves could be annulled. Hoping for clemency, Cromwell wrote in support of the annulment in his last personal address to the King
Cranmer to Henry VIII.
Heard yesterday in the King's Council that Cromwell is a traitor. Expresses his amazement and grief that he should be a traitor who was so advanced by the King and cared for no man's displeasure to serve him, and was so vigilant to detect treason that King John, Henry II., and Richard II., had they had such a councillor, would never have been so overthrown as they were. Loved him as a friend, and the more for the love he seemed to bear the King; and now, although glad that his treason is discovered, is very sorrowful; for whom shall the King trust hereafter? Prays God to send the King a councillor he can trust, and who, for all his qualities, can serve like him.
1543-Mary Queen Of Scots to Christian III.
In former letters signified the death of her father and appointment of James earl of Arran to the tutelage of herself and the realm; and also how her father, when he died, in his last will, commanded (after the ancient custom) that she and the princes of Scotland should cultivate the ancient confederacy with the kings of the Danes. Edw. Crawfurde, Hen. Tindel and David Carnebe, her subjects, who are about to sail into Prussia for grain, have petitioned her to beg him to commend them by letter to the prince of Prussia, his sister's husband. Begs him to permit them and other Scots to trade for grain within his realms and (at his request) those of his confederates. Linlithgow, 10 June 1543.
1584 - Death of Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon.He was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.
In 1579, arrangements began to be made for marrying him to Elizabeth I of England. Alençon, now Duke of Anjou, was in fact the only one of Elizabeth's foreign suitors to court her in person. He was 24 and Elizabeth was 46. Despite the age gap, the two soon became very close, Elizabeth dubbing him her "frog" on account of a frog-shaped earring he had given her
Damian Lewis appears in Tudor costume to play King Henry VIII in BBC drama Wolf Hall