• Today in Tudor History...


    14 June 1381 – Richard II of England meets leaders of Peasants' Revolt on Blackheath. The Tower of London is stormed by rebels who enter without resistance.


     1497 - Death of Juan Borgia, Duke of Gandia.He was a member of the House of Borgia and the son of Pope Alexander VI, Rodrigo Borgia. He was the brother of Cesare, Gioffre, and Lucrezia Borgia.

    He was murdered the night of 14 June 1497 near what later became the Piazza della Giudecca in the Ghetto of Rome.

    Today in Tudor History...

    1519-Francis I to henry VIII

    Has received his letters by the sieur de Boulen (Boleyn), his ambassador, and thanks him for the commission given to Boleyn to act as sponsor to Francis' son, the duke of Orleans, on behalf of Henry, giving him his name. Boleyn performed the ceremony with all possible honor. Will do the same if Henry's Queen have a son or daughter. Sainct Germain en Laye, 14 June

     1529 – Birth of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria 

    1532-Thomas More to Erasmus.

    Gives an account of his resignation of the chancellorship. Complains of the rapid progress of heretical doctrines, notwithstanding the efforts that have hitherto been made to repress them. Incorrect versions of the Scriptures, and heretical books of all kinds, make their way from Flanders into England. Has replied to several, and does not fear what the result will be with impartial judges. Chelsea, 14 June 1532.

    Today in Tudor History...

    1536-Princess Mary to Henry VIII.

    Notwithstanding her submission, and that she has twice written to his Highness, has not yet obtained her fervent desire or any piece of the same, to her intolerable discomfort. Is enforced to cry to his merciful ears, and, prostrate at his feet, implore him to put apart his displeasure. His grace has never been wanting to those who repented, and who did not offend by malice but by youth, frailty, and ignorance. Has no hope but in Henry's blessed nature. Begs him to accept her repentance, and means to use herself henceforth so that he shall have no cause to be displeased with her. Prays God to preserve him and the Queen, and send them issue. Hunsdon, 14 June.

    Today in Tudor History...


    The Princess Mary.


    Examination of Sir Anthony Browne.

    Never thought the marriage between the King and the Dowager lawful, since the controversy about it was bruited.

    "Mr. Carow sh[owed] him lately that he had received a letter from the lady Mary, as he supposes, and thereupon decl[ared] that Mr. Secretary had written a letter [to] her, advising her to submit to th[e King], and showed him that she would so do, [as] he understood; whereupon the said Sir An[thony] prayed God to give her grace so to [do]; whereunto the said Mr. Carowe said, if [she will] not submit herself she is undone, for the King is a merciful prince, and [will] take pity of her, if she will now l[eave her] obstinacy, and cast not herself away.

    "Item, he saith that Mr. Russel told him he heard say that in case she would [follow] the King's pleasure she should be heir-apparent, at which time being other present, whom he now remembereth not, one of them said, What mean you by the heir-apparent? Whereunto it was answered, that [she should] be reputed in such case for heir to his Highness, unless his Grace should have ys[sue of his] body by the Queen that now [is], son or daughter.

    "Item, he saith that when M[r. Treasurer] was last at home he went to Guldeforde to him of whom the said Mr. [Treasurer asked] what news were at the Court, whereunto he answered that he knew no news, saving only that Russel told him he heard say that lady Mary should be made heirapparent if she would submit herself to the King, which the said Mr. Treasurer prayed to God she might do.

    That "Mr. Carowe sent a letter" to lady Mary, which he showed before to this deponent and the Treasurer, the effect thereof being to advise her to submit to the King and follow Mr. Secretary's advice. Whether he sent the letter he does not know. Since Mr. Treasurer's coming to the Court he has demanded of him whether the lady Mary should [be] heir-apparent or no; to which he replied that he trusted she would, if she would submit herself and be obedient; but if she would not, 'I would,' quod he, 'that her head w[ere] from her shoulders, that I might toss i[t] here with my foot,' and so put his foot forward spurning the rushes."

    Being examined why be should have su[ch a]ffection to the said lady Mary, saith, that he was only moved thereunto for [the] love he beareth to the King, for he nev[er receive]d letter, message, token, or recommendations fro[m her, nor] hath sent her any.

    Being asked whether if the King had a daughter by the present Queen, he would have wished the said lady Mary's preferment before her . . . . he answereth plainly that he never thought it, ne hath seen, heard, [nor] perceived any other to be of tha[t] inclination, knowing this marriage to be undoubted.

    Item, examined whether, in case it had pleased God to call the King to his mercy, which God defend, leaving the lady Elizabeth in the degree of Princess, he would have adh[ered to] her, or advanced the said lady [Mary], he said that in such case h[e would] have died with the said lady E[lizabeth] according to the laws of the land.

    Item, he saith that he thought the [lady] Mary a meet person to be an heir-apparent, and to succeed in case the King should not chance to have issue of his body by the Queen that now is, which God send him shortly, for that the lady Mary was born in bona fide, which term of bona fide, as he hath heard often, as well before the making of the law for the King's succession, as sithens, so remembereth not presently of whom he heard the same, but will try to remember where he hath heard it and the same declare accord[ingly].

    Being asked whether he has had private conference with spiritual persons or any others not specified, about the state of the lady Mary, he says that divers persons, whose names he does not remember, have asked him how she should do, but he replied that he knew not, saying to some he marvelled they asked such questions.

    He never heard the term of bona fide parentum from Drs. Wolman, Bell, or Knight.

    Does not know of any conventicle devised by any one for the advancement of the lady Mary otherwise than is before declared. 

    Today in Tudor History...

     Examination of Sir Francis Bryan.

    Item, being examined whether he has heard a[ny] other person say anything concerning the lady Mary, he answers that upon the disclosing of the matter of the late Queen . . . . . . he has heard Carowe, . . . . . ., Browne, Cheyne, and the rest of his fellows of the Privy Cha[mber] speak generally of the lady Mary, sa[ying] that they rejoiced that the King had escaped this great pe[ril and] danger, and that the issue the King might have, if he took another wife, should be out of all doubt; but if the King wished to make an heir-apparent in defect of such issue, they thought lady Mary was meet if it stood with the King's pleasure.

    Yesternight Ma[ister] . . . . . . . and he went to Mr. Wolman's to s[upper], "where supped also Dr. Knight and . . . . . hering, and in the supper he asked . . . . . . . whether he had seen the King that d[ay] . . . . . . . . . . the church, who said nay, whereun[to] . . . . . . . . . . . that in case he had been there, h[e would have] seen the goodliest sight that ever [he saw,] for as his Grace stood above all th[ose present in] person, so he should have seen him [surpass] all in princely gesture and co[untenance], the which Sir John Russell and . . . . . . . . Queen was in like wise for . . . . . . . . was in apparel the fayr[est] . . . . . . . . . lady she was, and appeared . . . . . . . . . . . said was the contrary f . . . . . . . . . . was apparelled the . . . . . . . . . .," wherennto Mr. Wolman wished God would give them long life together, with issue of their bodies, which would clearly take away all doubts. Knight said the King need not swear any man to that issue, for every man was already sworn to it in his heart.

    Has never heard any such communication before at Mr. Wolman's, Knight's, or Bell's.

    At his last being at lord Mor[ley's?] Besse Harvye asked him why she was dis[charged] of the Queen's service, and asked him to help her to the lady Mary's service. Since his coming to the Court, he has sent her word that he had moved it, a[nd] the King bade him meddle with other m[atters].

    Besse Darrell also asked him to speak to Mr. Secretary for 300 marks which the Dowager gave her by her will, and to help her to be with the Queen, seeing she saw no hope in [the lad]y Mary, for she heard say that she would not be obedient to the King. He answered that she was the more . . . . . and so she would prove; but of whom she heard this said he did not ask and does not know. Knows of no private conference between any persons but as above.

    Being examined, whether since tha . . . . . . of the late Queen, he hath heard [any] communication of the validity of the . . . . . . marriage, or of the term of bona [fide] parentum, he says that he nev[er heard] since that time any communication thereof, [and for] his own part never thought it . . . . . . . . understand the said term . . . Signed: Franssys B[ryan].

    1544 – Death of Antoine, Duke of Lorraine 

    1557 - Paul IV demanded that Cardinal Pole return to Rome under suspicion of heresy.William Peto was made cardinal and papal legate


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