Today in Tudor History..
23 June 1509 - Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon leave the Tower of London for their coronation at Westminster Abbey
1528-Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn
"The cause of my writing at this time, good sweetheart, is only to understand of your good health and prosperity, whereof to know I would be as glad as in manner mine own; praying God that (and it be His pleasure) to send us shortly together, for I promise you I long for it, howbeit trust it shall not be long to; and seeing my darling is absent, I can no less do than to send her some flesh representing my name, which is hart's flesh for Henry, prognosticating that hereafter, God willing, you must enjoy some of mine, which, He pleased, I would were now. As touching your sister's matter, I have caused Water Welze to write to my Lord my mind therein, whereby I trust that Eve shall not have power to deceive Adam; for surely, what soever is said, it cannot so stand with his honor but that he must needs take her his natural daughter now in her extreme necessity. No more to you at this time, mine own darling, but that a while I would we were together of an evening. With the hand of yours"
1530-Augsburg Confession Signed by Reformation Leaders
1532 - Henry VIII and Francois I signs secret treaty against emperor Karel V
1534-Chapuys to Charles V.
Vienna Archives. It is about eight days since there arrived in two ships the ambassadors of Lubeck and Hamburg in equal number, viz., three from each town, and 18 servants, of whom those of Lubeck are bravely dressed in red with bands of yellow and white satin, and with these words on the sleeve: Si Deus pro, nobis, quis contra nos? Those of Hamburg are more simply dressed in black with the motto, Da pacem, Domine, in diebus nostris. They have not yet had audience of the King, perhaps waiting for the doctor, whom the said king has at Lubeck, who is to come by land, and, as some think, not without speaking with those of Bremen and other confederates. The cause of their coming is still hidden. I have been given to understand that the King entreated them to come, assuring them of great profit; and it is thought that among other things he will treat of commercial intercourse in case his subjects be forbidden to resort to your dominions, of which he is a good deal in doubt. Perhaps also he invited them to excite the jealousy of the Flemings and a fear that they would lose their trade. I expect those of Lubeck will treat somewhat of the affairs of Denmark. Those of Hamburg I am told made some difficulty in coming, and one who is familiar with them informs me they reckon on their return to pass through Flanders towards the Queen.
I have not ceased since Whitsun Eve to solicit an answer to my communications with the Council, and for a licence to visit the Queen, for which she daily urges me, but as yet I have had no success. Cromwell gave my man to understand some days ago that what I desired was very proper, but it was a question of trusting ladies (mais les dames estoient de croyre). Afterwards Cromwell sent word to me that he would come and speak to me, but he forgot this as well as other things, and I sent my man to remind him that the duke of Norfolk and he had to speak with me about the matters I was soliciting, and also about certain letters that the King had received from Spain. This conference was to have been yesterday, but owing to some business that had occurred, they sent to beg that I would have patience for two or three days. During these delays the Queen has had little rest, for the King has lately sent messengers to her to make the ladies about her swear, with instructions in case of refusal to bring them away prisoners. This the commissioners would have performed altogether if it had not been for the difficulty of taking so many ladies away against their will, besides that they were moved with pity not to leave the Queen alone, who implored them most lamentably not to proceed with such severity until they had informed the King; and with this view they arrived two days ago in Court. I do not know what commands they will receive.
About 10 months ago I sent the Queen a protestation that she was to forward to the Princess for her to sign. This I thought had been done long ago; otherwise I would have seen to it well; but lately the Queen, despairing of an opportunity of getting it signed, sent it back to me, and I have found means to get her signature, as your majesty will see. It is inconceivable what pains the said Princess has taken with her incomparable and angelic wit to pass the said protestation and the like, and to divert the attention of the guards about her.
I am informed by a person of good faith that the King's concubine had said more than once, and with great assurance, that when the King has crossed the sea, and she remains gouvernante, as she will be, she will use her authority and put the said Princess to death, either by hunger or otherwise. On Rochford, her brother, telling her that this would anger the King, she said she did not care even if she were burned alive for it after. The Princess quite expects this, and thinking that she could not better gain Paradise than by such a death, shows no concern (na fait cas du monde), trusting only in God, whom she has always served well and does still better now. Having spoken to the Queen, by her advice I will make remonstrances; but I know not if they will do any good.
Begs pardon for repeating some things, to which he is constrained by the importunity of many good persons inclined to the Emperor's service. If his majesty do not see to affairs here, there will be no remedy after by reason of this sect, which begins to increase. The King expects that it will secure the loyalty of his people against your majesty, and also conciliate the favor of Germany, especially of maritime cities like Lubeck; and though he has no right, he will always be able to extort from his subjects whatever he pleases, and will excite in France and Germany as much opposition to you as possible. Even if your majesty were to show yourself satisfied with all he has done, I do not believe he would give up these intrigues, both for envy and for the doubt he always entertains that at last he will meet with the reward he merits. And these people think that the true bridle to keep France and Germany steady would be to take action here. (fn. 1) It was thus that the Emperor Maximilian overcame his two competitors, as shown by the chronicles of this kingdom, which, in the state in which things are now, they say would be as easy to conquer as could be; for great and small are only waiting for the least opportunity to declare themselves in favor of your majesty, the Queen and Princess, of whose life there is great fear otherwise. You could not believe the hundredth part of the vexation of all this kingdom, except some of the new sect, at the delay of a remedy, and the reproaches I have had for it from innumerable quarters. This I have ventured to repeat that you may not imagine that the new oaths have altered the disposition of the people.
The archbishop of Canterbury, reserving to himself the determination, which he promises to declare within a year, whether there be any purgatory, whether it be well to pray to saints or worship them, whether it be lawful for priests to marry, and whether pilgrimages be meritorious, has forbidden by public command any preacher meanwhile to make any mention of these articles in his sermon, either for or against. This is only a preparation for the work of the coming Parliament, in which the King intends to take the goods of all the churches; which he has not yet ventured to propose only that he might not attempt too many dangerous things at once. London, 23 June 1534.
1536- Princess Mary to Cromwell.
"Good Master Secretary, how much I am bound unto you, which hath not only travailed, when I was almost drowned in folly, to recover me before I sunk and was utterly past recovery, and so to present me to the fire of grace and mercy, but also desisteth not sithence with your good and wholesome counsels so to arm me from any relapse that I cannot, unless I were too wilful and obstinate, whereof there is now no spark in me, fall again into any danger." In answer to your credence by Master Wrythesley, "concerning the Princess (so, I think, I must call her yet, for I would be loth to offend), I offered at her entry to that name and honor to call her sister, but it was refused unless I would also add the other title unto it; which I denied not then more obstinately than I am now sorry for it, for that I did therein offend my most gracious father and his just laws; and now that you think it meet, I shall never call her by other name than sister." Touching the nomination of such women as I would have about me, I am content with what men or women the King will appoint me; but I think Margery Baynton and Susan Clarencyus ought to be considered for their faithful service to the King and me since they came unto my company. I should also be glad to have Mary Brown, sometime my maid. As to my opinion touching pilgrimages, purgatory, relics, and the like, I assure you I have none but such as I shall receive from him that hath mine whole heart in keeping, the King, my father, to whose presence I pray God I may once come or I die. Every day is a year till then. Hounsdon, this Friday, 10 at night.
1540-Marillac to Montmorency.
[London], 23 June:—Had their posts made as good speed as the English courier, Montmorency should have known of the taking of Cromwell as soon as Wallop did. Nothing else is spoken of here, and in a week at latest the said prisoner is expected to be executed and treated as be deserves, as appears by the presages and arguments here following.
To commence with the day of his taking in the Council Chamber of the King's house at Westminster:—As soon as the Captain of the Guard declared his charge to make him prisoner, Cromwell in a rage cast his bonnet on the ground, saying to the duke of Norfolk and others of the Privy Council assembled there that this was the reward of his services, and that he appealed to their consciences as to whether he was a traitor; but since he was treated thus he renounced all pardon, as he had never thought to have offended, and only asked the King not to make him languish long. Thereupon some said he was a traitor, others that he should be judged according to the laws he had made, which were so sanguinary that often words spoken inadvertently with good intention had been constituted high treason. The duke of Norfolk having reproached him with some “villennyes” done by him, snatched off the order of St. George which he bore on his neck, and the Admiral, to show himself as great an enemy in adversity as he had been thought a friend in prosperity, untied the Garter. Then, by a door which opens upon the water, he was put in a boat and taken to the Tower without the people of this town suspecting it until they saw all the King's archers under Mr. Cheyney at the door of the prisoner's house, where they made an inventory of his goods, which were not of such value as people thought, although too much for a “compaignon de telle estoffe.” The money was 7,000l. st., equal to 28,000 crs., and the silver plate, including crosses, chalices, and other spoils of the Church might be as much more. These movables were before night taken to the King's treasury—a sign that they will not be restored.
Next day were found several letters he wrote to or received from the Lutheran lords of Germany. Cannot learn what they contained except that this King was thereby so exasperated against him that he would no longer hear him spoken of, but rather desired to abolish all memory of him as the greatest wretch ever born in England. To commence, this King distributed all his offices and proclaimed that none should call him lord Privy Seal or by any other title of estate, but only Thomas Cromwell, shearman (tondeur de draps), depriving him of all his privileges and prerogatives, and distributing his less valuable moveables among his (Cromwell's) servants, who were enjoined no longer to wear their master's livery. From this it is inferred that he will not be judged with the solemnity accustomed to be used to the lords of this country, nor beheaded; but will be dragged up as an ignoble person, and afterwards hanged and quartered. A few days will show; especially as they have determined to empty the Tower at this Parliament, which finishes with this month.
As to the other prisoners, people know not yet what to say except that there is good hope as regards the Deputy of Calais, of whom the King has said he could not think the said Deputy erred through malice but rather through ignorance.
It remains to name those who have succeeded to Cromwell's estates. Will not depict those whom Montmorency knows already. The Admiral is made lord Privy Seal, and lord Russell Admiral; the bp. of Durham is first secretary; of the office of vicar as to the spiritualty, no decision has yet been come to, but people say that if one is made it will be the bp. of Winchester, who, since the imprisonment of his great adversary, has been called to the Privy Council, which, before, he was not accustomed to enter. For affairs of justice they have deputed the Chancellor, who, among other virtues, can neither speak French nor Latin, and has the reputation of being a good seller of justice whenever he can find a buyer. They have given him for colleague a new chancellor, of the Augmentations, the most wretched person in England, who was first inventor of the overthrow of abbeys, and of all innovations in the Church—in fact, he invented and Cromwell authorised —and he had the title of the Augmentations for having increased the King's revenue, but might be called, from another point of view, Chancellor of the Diminutions, for having diminished the wealth of the Church and his reputation as a learned and wise man. “Mais il a faict preuve de son sçavoir en toute malheureté.”
Would have presented the letters of credence from the King (received with Montmorency's letters on the 15th) sooner, but was confined to his chamber by a fever. However, as Norfolk, to whom, as instructed, he had communicated everything, desired him to address this King in the form which had been written to him, Marillac ventured out the sooner both on account of Norfolk's request, and also to hear news from this King, especially of the end of him who was the commencement of so many evils in England. Has reported the conversation to the King almost as it was spoken; and certes it has been redoubled by his ministers, who now promise marvels, as the obstacle which was always in the way has been taken from their midst, meaning Cromwell.
Omitted to mention that lord Leonard de Clidas has been lately taken to the Tower accused of intelligence with the Irish opponents of this King. It is he who took his cousins and nephews in Ireland and brought them here, where they were executed.
1585 - Spanish army under Tassis beats Amerongen Staatse troops
1608-Thomas Garnett was Hanged, Drawn and Quartered on a charge of involvement in the Gun Powder Plot