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    29 June 1136 –Birth of  Petronilla of Aragon 

    She was the Queen of Aragon from the abdication of her father in 1137 until her own abdication in 1164. She was the daughter and successor of Ramiro II by his queen, Agnes of Aquitaine. She was the last ruling member of the Jiménez dynasty in Aragon, and by marriage brought the throne to the House of Barcelona.

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    1397 - Birth of John II of Aragon 

    He was the King of Aragon from 1458 until 1479, and jure uxoris King of Navarre from 1425 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John is regarded as one of the most memorable kings of the 15th century.

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    1475 –Birth of Beatrice d'Este, duchess of Bari and later of Milan, was the wife of the Milanese ruler Ludovico Sforza (known as "il Moro"). She was one of the most beautiful and accomplished princesses of the Italian Renaissance. A member of the Este family, she was the younger daughter of Ercole I d'Este and the sister of Isabella d'Este and Alfonso d'Este. Along with her sister, Beatrice was noted for her excellent taste in fashion and for having invented new clothing styles


    1482 - Birth of Maria of Aragon, queen of Portugal 

    She was a Spanish infanta and the second wife of Portuguese King Manuel I, thus queen consort of Portugal from her marriage on 30 October 1500 until her death.

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    1509 - Death of  Margaret Beaufort ,Countess of Richmond and Derby.She was the mother of King Henry VII and paternal grandmother of King Henry VIII of England. She was a key figure in the Wars of the Roses and an influential matriarch of the House of Tudor. She founded two prominent Cambridge Colleges; Christ's College in 1505, and St John's College in 1511.

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    1529 - Emperor Charles  V and Pope Clemens VII sign Treaty of Barcelona


    1535-A 2000-word indictment accusing Thomas More of treason is presented to the special commission.

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    1536 - Thomas Boleyn was stripped of his office of Lord Privy Seal.

    1537 - Death of Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland.He was an English nobleman, active as a military officer in the north.He is now primarily remembered as the betrothed of Anne Boleyn, whom he was forced to give up before she became involved with King Henry VIII.

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    1539-Statute of Six Articles against Protestant practices is passed


    1540 - Thomas Cromwell found guilty of treason 

    Today in Tudor History...

    . Anne of Cleves.

    “An order to be observed in process for this matter.”

    Memoranda in Gardiner's hand, with marginal notes appended in Wriothesley's, viz.:—

    1. “The specialty to be broken t[o several] men with charge of secrecy upon their oaths.” 2. “That done, their resolution to be certified w[ith diligence].” 3. “To know of them the way and [manner of process] and the form thereof to be opened and d[ilated], and thereupon relation to be made to the [King's] Majesty.” In margin: “For the Spiritualty.”

    4. “A consultation to be made how to [bring the] matter to execution, and that also to be [signified] to the King's Highness.” Margin: “For the Council.”

    5. “An ensearch to be made to attain knowledge [of] the contract made with the prince of Lor[raine], whether it was de præsenti or de futuro.” Margin: “Mr. Wriothesley and Dr. Peter to make search at the Earl of Essex's house.”

    6. “To see and search for the instrument [of renunciation] made since her coming into England, [wherein] Dr. Peter or Watkyns can tell mo[che].” Margin: “The said Wriothesley and Dr. Peter to examine Hussey, Watkins, and others.”

    7. “To consider in what sort the King's [Majesty's Council] shall cause the matter to be opened unto the Queen, and by whom and when and [where].” Margin: “For the Council.”

    8. “To cause the earl of Essex to be spoken [with and] examined of these matters.” Margin: “By such as the King's Majesty shall appoint.”

    9. “How the King's Majesty shall order himself as using his liberty from matrimony or otherwise in the mean time.” Margin: “This to be deferred [to] the determination of the clergy.”

    10. “A remembrance that as much proof as may be had be prepared and in aredynesse to declare the King's Majesty's misliking, his Grace's dissent and abstinence a carnali copula, and also her confession thereof if it may be attained.”

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    1. “First, to declare the difference between sponsalia [de] presenti and de futuro.” 2. “Whether either of them being not first … be a lawful impediment whereby the second m[arriage] may be declared nought with (sic) having appar[aunce of] consent lacked yet a perfect and hearty cons[ent, as] by proof of witness may appear.” 3. “Thirdly, if it may appear by witness [of relation] quod claustra non aperiebantur, and so [consummation] not following, nor intended,  with a certain [horror in] nature thereto appending, be matter sufficie[nt to] declare, upon a marriage not heartily  [consummate as] afore, the insufficiency thereof without f[urther pro]cess.” 4. “[Four]thly, whether the bere pot  be a s[ufficient disch]arge for the former spousal.” 5. “[Fifth]ly, if it be not a lawful imped[iment to the par]ties which contracted the second [marriage, kno]wing before of the first spousal, [to go together, not] having a better discharge to th[eir knowledge the]nne the bere pot.” 6. “Sixthly, to declare what deposition [and how man]y deponents be sufficient to [prove the lac]k of hearty consent and ….”

    In Wriothesley's hand. Mutilated. With mutilated note at the foot (referring to the third question) in a different hand.

    4. The same questions, each with the answer appended.

    The answer to the third is prefaced as follows:—“If by witness of relation be meant such witness … depose the Quenes affirmation that she is not kn[own] … by inspection of her body affirm themself by the … that she remaineth unknown, these witness be … hearing to make faith in the matter. If by witness of relation be meant such w[itness as] heard the King's Majesty declare his misliking [both] before and after, whereby might appear the K[ing] … dissent, these witness be to be heard … in that point. If by witness of relation be meant … heard the King's Majesty open the secrete … Quene, and how his Grace could not … her, these witness do well enforce the … poynte more appear if the Quene do not … t.”

    The answer to the fourth is: “The instrument signed with the bere pot containeth no m[anner] of discharge at all, but rather ministereth matter of m[uch] doubt.”


    Today in Tudor History...

    Cromwell and the Anne of Cleves Marriage.

    “Questions to be asked of the lord Cromwell”:—1. Whether he asked the King, coming from “Rochester, how he liked the Queen and was answered, “Nothing so well as she was spoken of, and that if his Highness had known so much before, she should not have comen hither; but what remedy now?” Cromwell said he was sorry. 2. On her entry to Greenwich, after the King had brought her to her chamber, Cromwell waited upon his Grace in his, who said, “How say you, my Lord? Is it not as I told you, say what they will, she is nothing fair; the personage is well and seemly, but nothing else?” Cromwell replied, “By my faith, you say truth, but me thinketh she hath a queenly manner withal.” “That is truth,” quoth his Highness. 3. After this there was communication with the ambassadors of Cleves upon the covenants, “in the which, as it is remembered, there was lack found of ample commission for performance of covenants and treaties, which lacks his Majesty commanded the said lord Cromwell to declare; whereof one amongst other was that there did not appear her assent and consent to that commission.” On this Cromwell came, the back way, to the King to “declare” the same, and asked again how he liked her. The King answered, “If it were not that she is come so far into England, and for fear of making a ruffle in the world and driving her brother into th' Emperor and the French king's hands, now being together, I would never have her; but now it is too far gone, wherefore I am sorry.” 4. The eve of the marriage Cromwell told the King that the ambassadors and commissioners were agreed. His Grace asked, “How do you with the assurance which was made by her to the duke of Lorraine?” and added that she must make a renunciation herself. This Cromwell caused her to do, and returned to tell the King. “Then is there no remedy, quod his Majesty, but put my neck in the yoke?” 5. The morrow after, Cromwell asked the King if he liked her any better, and his Grace replied, “Nay, my Lord, much worse, for by her breasts and belly she should be no maid; which, when I felt them, strake me so to the heart that I had neither will nor courage to prove the rest.” Doubtless Cromwell remembers how that often, since, the King has said his nature abhorred her.


    Today in Tudor History...


    Cromwell to Henry VIII. 


    . Was charged by the lord Chancellor, the duke of Norfolk, and the lord Admiral, whom the King sent to examine him, to declare upon the damnation of his soul what he knew of the marriage between Henry and the Queen. Gave particulars as well as he could remember, which they commanded him to write to the King, as follows:—

    When the King heard of the lady Anne's arrival at Dover and that her journeys were appointed to Greenwich, and that she should be at Rochester at New Year's Eve at night, he told Cromwell he would visit her there on New Year's Day, adding “to nourish love,” which he accordingly did. Next day, Friday, the King returned to Greenwich, and on Cromwell asking how he liked the lady Anne, answered, as Cromwell thought, heavily, “Nothing so well as she was spoken of”; adding that if he had known before as much as he then knew, she should never have come within the realm. He asked in lamentation, “What remedy?” Cromwell said he knew of none, and was very sorry. Next day, after the lady's entrance to Greenwich, after the King had brought her to her chamber, he said to Cromwell, “My lord, is it not as I told you? Say what they will, she is nothing so fair as she hath been reported. Howbeit, she is well and seemly.” Cromwell agreed, though he said she had a queenly manner. The King bade him call together the Council, viz., the abp. of Canterbury, Norfolk, Suffolk, my lord Admiral, my lord of Durham, and himself, to know what commission the agents of Cleves had brought for the performance of the covenants sent from hence to Dr. Wotton to be concluded in Cleves, and also touching the declaration how matters stood for the covenants of marriage between the duke of Lorraine's son and the said lady Anne. On this Osleger and Hogeston were called, and, being much abashed, desired that they might make answer next morning, Sunday, when they met early with the Council and answered, as men much perplexed, that as to the commission they had none such, and as to the contract and covenants of marriage they could only say a revocation was made, and they were but spousals. Finally, they offered to be prisoners until they should have procured from Cleves the first articles ratified under the Duke their master's sign and seal, and the copy of the revocation. Cromwell was sent with this answer to the King, who was much displeased, and said, “I am not well handled.” Saw the King was fully determined not to have gone through with the marriage at that time; for he said, if it were not that she had come so far, and the great preparations that had been made for her, and for fear of making a ruffle in the world, i.e., of driving her brother into the hands of the Emperor and the French king, who were now together, that he would “never have ne marry her.” After dinner the King sent for all his Councillors, and repeated his complaint, and suggested that she should make a protestation before them and notaries that she was free from all contracts; which she did. On this, he said to Cromwell, “Is there none other remedy but that I must needs, against my will, put my neck in the yoke?” Cromwell left him pensive, yet he determined next morning to go through. That morning (Monday), while the King was preparing for the ceremonies, there was a question who should lead her to the church. It was arranged that the earl of Essex, deceased, and an earl that came with her should do so. As Essex had not come, Cromwell was ordered to lead her, but, shortly after he got to her chamber, Essex arrived, and Cromwell went back to inform the King, who then said to him, “My lord, if it were not to satisfy the world and my realm, I would not do that I must do this day for none earthly thing.” And therewith, being informed that she was coming, the King repaired into the gallery towards the closet, where he waited for her. He afterwards went through the ceremonies, “travelled the day, as appertained, and the night, after the custom.” On Tuesday morning Cromwell repaired to his privy chamber, and finding him not so pleasant as he hoped, asked how he liked the queen? He “soberly” answered “that I was not all men. Surely, my Lord, as ye know, I liked her before not well, but now. I like her much worse”; for he had felt her belly and breasts, and thought she was no maid; that he was struck to the heart, and left her as good a maid as he found her. Also, after Candlemas and before Shrovetide, he once or twice said that he had never known her carnally, although he had lain nightly or every second night by her. The King also showed him last Lent when he had some conversation with her of the lady Mary that she began to wax stubborn and wilful, and after Easter and in Whitsun week he lamented his fate that he should never have any more children if he so continued, declaring that before God he thought she was not his lawful wife. Since Whitsuntide he has said he had done as much to move the consent of his heart and mind as ever man did, but the obstacle would not out of his mind.

    My lord Admiral can show what Cromwell said to him after the King came from Rochester, even after his marriage. Doubts not that since Whitsuntide many of the Council have perceived that the King was not satisfied with his marriage. Prays for the King and Prince.

    “Written at the Tower, this Wednesday, the last of June, with the heavy heart and trembling hand of your Highness' most heavy and most miserable prisoner and poor slave,

    “Thomas Crumwell.

    “Most gracious prince, I cry for mercy, mercy, mercy!”


    Today in Tudor History...

    Cromwell to Henry VIII.


    “That it hath pleased your most royal and most merciful M[ajesty] to send to me such honourable personages at ij several times, at [the] one time sued for, and at the other time declaring u[nto me] my state and condition, in most honorable, prudent, [and] sage fashion, my gracious and most benign sovereign lord, … that I cannot condignly do my duty to your Majesty, [but I will] continually during my life pray to Almighty God [that He of his goodn]es may reward your graciousness and prince[ly dealing to]wards me. And where, gracious prince, they at t[heir coming and repay]re towards me heard me in everything what[soever I said without] any interruption with such gentleness and [patience that I could not] more desire; so they pressed me by all [means to do all that I] could to detect and accuse any other [person … who sh]ould in any wise not be true unto yr [Highness. Unto whom] I answered as I now do, that if I kn[ew any persons in] yor realm that were not your true lea[gemen … I would], as my duty is, detect them; for, grac[ious Prince, there is] nothing earthly that I more covet [than the security of your] royal person and the wealth of your rea[lm] w … Our Lord that best knoweth help … declared to me plainly … the recital of diver[s] * * * (two or three lines lost) same mine offences being by honest and probable witness proved, I was by your honorable lords of the Upper House and the worshipful and discreet commons [house] (fn. 16) of your Nether House convicted and attainted. Gracious Sovereign, when I heard them I said, as now I say, that I am a subject, and born to obey laws, and, knowing that the trial of all laws only consisteth in honest and probable witness, and considering that the state of [your whole] realm had heard and received them, and th[at they have] proceeded, as I am sure they have done, without [malice, I] submitted me to their sentence, and therefore … highly, and eftsoons I most heartily thank God … but yet I must now beseech your Grace of p … albeit laws be laws and in them ha[ve] … yet God is God and knoweth both [my faithfulness] towards your Majesty and your realm … how dear your person was, is, and ever hath [been] … [m]oche grieved me that I should be noted … e I had your laws in my breast, and … [Sacr]ementarye God he knoweth the … [t]he ton and the other guiltless. I [am] … ffull Christian man and so will I … e and conscience your Highness tre[w] … woll. But, gracious King, … hath been great and … worldl[y] * * * (perhaps a line or two lost) therefore, most gracious Prince, I humbly submit me to your [Grace] and ask of God mercy for my sins, and of your Highness mercy and pardon for mine offences as to your high wisdom shall seem most convenient. And, Sir, that ever I have deceived you in any of your treasure, surely I have [not], and that God Almighty best knoweth and so that I [may be] holpen at my most need I beseech Christ. Sir, upon [my kne]es I most humbly beseech your most gracious Majesty [to be goo]d and gracious lord to my poor son, the good and virtu[ous lady his] wife, and their poor children, and also to my … es; and this I desire of your Grace for Christ['s sake. I] humbly thank your Majesty for such money as … be my good lords, and also beseech the same … [s]halbe your gracious pleasure that I shall ly … [w]orlde that I may have those things that may … I shall daily pray for your Highness.

    “[Among other] things my lords moved and [stirred me upon my] soul and conscience to declare what [I knew in the] marriage between your Majes[ty and the Queen. To] the which I answered as I knew dec[laring unto them the particul]ers as nigh as I could, and there[upon I have] wrytt to your Highness the truth as [I can remember; wh]ich was in this sort:—after that your [Majesty heard that the lady A]nne was arrived at Dover and [that her journeys were appointed towar]des Greenwich and that s[he should be at Rochester on New Year's even] at night your H[ighness] … * * * (perhaps a line lost) Grace repaired towards night to Greenwich, where I spake with your Grace and demanded of you how you liked the lady Anne. Your Grace, being somewhat heavy, as I took it, answered and said she was no such manner of woman as she had been declared to you, with many other things. Which surely much grieved me, for I perceived your Grace to be nothing content; nevertheless your Highness determined for the me[eting] the next day to be had as it was before app[ointed] … and after which meeting and your entry made … your Grace called me unto you asking me wh[ether your Grace had] told me truth or no. To the which I said lytyl[l, for I was] very sorrowful to consider that your Grace [was no better] content. And then your Highness commanded me [to call together] my lord of Canterbury and my lord Cha[ncellor, my lord of] Norfolk, my lord of Suffolk, my lord [Admiral] and my lord of Durham to commune t[ogether of your] marriage, and that we should call [to us the ambassadors of] the duke of Cleves to know what c[ommission they had] for the concluding of certain arti[cles] … [b]y Mr. Wotton and also what they h … the contract and covenants o[f marriage between my lad]ye Anne and the duke of Lorey[n's son. Whereupon Olisl]eger and Hodggesten wern cally[d] … yd and declaryd your Gracious … [a]bashed, and desired that [they might make answer in the next] morning which was [Sunday. And upon Sunday] in the mo[rning, they said they had no commission] to treat of the article before proponed by Mr. [Dr.] Wotton, ne yet had brought any discharge or decl[aration] of the covenants of marriage between the duke of Lor[eyn's] son and the lady Anne; nevertheless Osleger offer[ed himself] to remain here as a prisoner until such time [as] certain articles should be ratified, being parce[ll of] the articles purposed before, and also to bri[ng, devised in] authentic fashion and form, a revocation of [all the aforesaid] covenants and contracts of marriage made bet[ween th]e lady Anne and the duke of Loreyn's son, [which wa]s the furthest that could be gotten of them. [Which thi]ngs being declared, your Highness was ver[y ill conte]ntt and said ye were not well handled … [an]d that ye were very loth an … [determin]yd not to have concluded the [marriage at that time]. And then, after dinner the same So[nday your Grace s]entt for all the said my lords your Council … g debating of the matter it was … [lor]des of Canterbury and Durham … [matt]ers between the son of Lorayn and [the lady Anne w]er but spousalls and that such a … made as was alledged, that then … [pro]testation in an honorable presence … notaries should be a suffi[cient discharge in law] … whereupon your Grace re … and that all th … * * * (perhaps a line lost) the person, insomuch that after her protestation made before your lords and your preparation to marriage in the morning, going through your chamber of presence, your Highness said to me these words or the like in sentence, My lord, if it were not to satisfy the world and my realm, I would not do that I shall do this day for none earthly thing. And therewith one brought your Grace word that she was coming; and thereupon your Grace proceeded to the fy[nall] determination of the ceremonies used in like … after passed that day honorably. And the ne[xt morning I] repairing unto your Highness into your privy [chamber] … found your Grace not pleasant and yet never[theless entered] into communication with your Highness. I was so [bold to ask your Grace] how ye liked the Queen. Whereunto your Gr[ace] … was not all men, alledging that [your Grace left her as g]ood a maid as ye found her, declari[ng] … [h]er brestes were and how her belye was of … [s]uch as your Grace had not felt … your Grace's words that besides your dis … [mi]ght be doubted whether she were … [assu]rydly very displeasant your Grace … [af]ter Candlemas and before Shrove [tide once or twice said to] me that your heart could never [consent to meddle with her carnally] notwithstanding that ye for … ever saying that … * * * (perhaps two lines lost) had some communication with her of my lady Mary [how that] she began to wax stubborn and wilful, much lament[ing] your fate and fortune, ever alledging that ye had [never] carnally known her. And in like wise after Easter and in [the] Whitsunweek at Greenwich in your privy cham[ber] ye then lamentably complained your fate, decl[aring that] ye had done all that ye could to move nature … consent to have done with her as is pertenent to … yet ever there was an obstacle, and th[at your Grace t]hought before God she was not your wife [lawful. What] I said to your Grace at that time I doubt no[t but that your G]race well remembereth it. Many other [times also si]thyn Whitsuntide your Grace hath grevos[ly lamented your] chance, which assuredly hath not … e. More than this, gracious and mo … g lord, can I not say, but … that it lay in my power to com … and that with shedding of my blood ye … dom (?), but I doubt not God who always h … deliver your Grace from this … nde and bring you to comfort for this knowing myself to be only at the [mercy of your] Grace and without hope of life … that after ye came from Roch[ester] … e here I did never b … nt to marry … * * * (perhaps one line lost) for the satisfaction of the world and your realm than otherwise; and this I think to be true as I shall be saved at the dreadful day of Judgment. I am a right simple man to be a witness in this matter, but yet I think next your Grace I know as much as any one man living in this realm doth. And that this is true God shall be my witness, who best kn[oweth] the truth; and I trust my lord Adm[iral will] bear me witness what I said to him [at your Grace's] return from Rochester, and also at divers [other times]. I doubt not all my lords before named my [ght right well] perceive, both before the day of your gracious [marriage] and after, that your Highness was not [well pleased, and before] God I never thought your Grace co[ntent after ye had o]ns seen her, and so Christ … making an end I shall whiles I … [co]ntinually pray for the long … [pros]perity and wealth of your Highness to … es and to send your Majesty y … [com]ffort in this and all other maty[ers] … Prince your son felycyously to … s upon my knees prostrate … King pardon mercy and … Christ” * * *

    Today in Tudor History...

    The King's declaration about his marriage with Anne of Cleves. 

    When the first communication was had with him for it he was glad to hearken to it, trusting to have [some assured] friend, as he much doubted the Emperor, France and the bp. of Rome, and he had also heard so much of her beauty and virtue. But when he saw her for the first time at Rochester, he was glad he had kept free from making any [pact or bond] till then; for he liked her so ill he was sorry she had come and he considered if it were possible to break off. The Great Master, the Admiral that now is, and the Master of the Horse can bear witness of his misliking. The lord of Essex, if examined, can or has declared what he said to him after his repair to Greenwich. As he is condemned to die he will not damn [his soul, but declare what the King said, not only at the time but continually till] the day of mar[riage and many times after, whereby his lack of consent will appear; and also lack of the will and power to consummate the same; “wherein both he, my physicians,  the lord Privy Seal that now is, Hennage and Denny can, and I doubt not will, testify according to truth; which is, that I never for love to the woman consented to marry; nor yet, if she brought maidenhead with her, took any from her by true carnal copulation. This is my brief, true and perfect declaration.”]


    1613 - Shakespeare's Globe Theatre burns down


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