Today in Tudor History...
21 July 1403 – Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeats rebels to the north of the county town of Shropshire, England.
1403 – Death of Henry Percy, English soldier
Sir Henry Percy was known as one of the most valiant knights of his day, and was a significant captain during the Anglo-Scottish wars. He later led successive rebellions against Henry IV of England, and was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his career.
1528-Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn
The approach of the time which has been delayed so long delights me so much that it seems almost already come. Nevertheless, the entire accomplishment cannot be till the two persons meet; which meeting is more desired on my part than anything in the world, for what joy can be so great as to have the company of her who is my most dear friend, knowing likewise that she does the same. Judge then what will that personage do whose absence has given me the greatest pain in my heart, which neither tongue nor writing can express, and nothing but that can remedy. Tell your father on my part that I beg him to abridge by two days the time appointed that he may be in court before the old term, or at least upon the day prefixed; otherwise I shall think he will not do the lover's turn as he said he would, nor answer my expectation. No more, for want of time. I hope soon to tell you by mouth the rest of the pains I have suffered in your absence. Written by the hand of the secretary, who hopes to be privately with you
Is perplexed with such things as her brother will declare to her. Wrote in his last that he trusted shortly to see her, "which is better known at London than with any that is about me; whereof I not a little marvel, but lack of discreet handling must be the cause thereof." I hope soon "our meeting shall not depend upon other men's lyght handylleness but upon your own. Written with the hand of hys that longeth to be yours."
i. Confession of Edmund Tyball, of Bumstede, husbandman, before Mr. Wharton, in St. Mary's chapel in the monastery of Walden, 21 July, "anno Domini supradicto."
About Christmas last heard Sir Richard Fox, parish priest of Bumstede, say in John Darkyn's house that he wished he had my lord Cardinal's authority, and he would pull down these images in the church, for he feared many sinned in idolatry. John Lond was angry with him for these words, said he would bear a fagot to burn him, and after that took his "portyse" in his hand. Sir Richard replied "that there is never a word that God ever made." At this Darkyn was very "wode," and bade him get out of his house. At the same time Fox said, "Ye make a vow or a behest to go in pilgrimage to Our Lady of Ipswich, Walsingham, or to Canterbury, and there by a candle of wax think ye do well." Darkyns replied, "Yea. How say you?" To which Fox gave no answer. After that Fox said openly that God commanded no fasting days except the "Imbren days," and men were not bound to other days, except after their devotion.
Was shriven last Lent by Fox, who, during his confession, asked him how he believed in the Sacrament of the Altar. Answered, that he believed that God was there in form of bread, Redeemer of all the world; and then Fox said, "Nay; it is but a remembrance of Christ's Passion." Never believed nor consented to this teaching, but did not disclose it. Was much in company with and very familiar with Fox.
Abjuration of all heresies by Tyball, and promise to discover all persons whom he knows to be heretics. Signed with a cross.
Wharton absolved Tyball, on his confession, from the sentence of excommunication, and enjoined him, as penance, to carry a fagot before the procession at the church of Steple Bumstede on the following Sunday, and to hear high mass throughout. Present: Dr. Jynner, Mr. Core, rector of Radwinter, Richard, curate of Heydon, John Goldyng and Thomas Turner.
1528-Henry VIII to Queen Margaret
Thanks her for her discreet answers to his letters, urging the erection of her son to his proper estate, to which her natural affection and her great wisdom must lead her; for whoever considers Albany's demeanor in undertaking such a suspect governance, in pretending to be heir apparent, in restoring himself and his blood during the young King's minority, in usurping divers patrimonies of the King to his own succession, and in detaining and misemploying the crown revenues, and the damage which has ensued through him as servant to the French king, may evidently perceive that he either will not dare return as the King is so nearly of age, or, if he do, he will not abide the danger, which will be imputed to him, but will rather compass the Scotch king's destruction, and himself aspire to the throne, with the advice and help of the French king, who hates nothing more than the proximity of blood between the kings of England and Scotland. Knows that he intends this, by intercepted letters and other credible ways. All the King's friends and true subjects must regard this as Henry himself has done in making war, to his no small expence, on Albany's supporters, for the King's preservation. If he had not done so, the King would have been in extreme danger. Offers to defend her, her son and his friends, against all princes and persons, in taking his royal dignity, which must not be deferred for four or five days, nor for one day or hour, but done immediately in spite of all sinister compasses and colorable persuasions. As, therefore, they have so great a friend to maintain their quarrel, she must cause the King immediately, if it is not already done, to come forth and give express commandment to all his nobles and subjects, on pain of their allegiance, to take his part, and whoever will move or persuade him to the contrary, to be accounted a rebel and traitor. Will treat thus every one so persisting. To show by deeds as well as words that he will maintain their quarrel, has sent Norfolk to the Borders as his lieutenant, to advise them, and, if need be, assist them, as Norfolk will show.
As to peace between the realms, never intended that any but she should have the honor and doing thereof, as she has always labored for it, and it is not to be attempted except by a person of her estate. Nevertheless, has not showed himself displeasant to any honorable nobleman who proposed anything concerning peace. Was thus persuaded by Angus, contrary to his former intention, to admit a diet between Norfolk and the Chancellor in case they would abandon Albany and "erect" the King; not that he intended Angus to have any authority in conducting it, but that she should be the author and mediator thereof. Has ordered that if any such diet is held, all shall be done by her. Has arranged that Angus shall remain on the Borders, and not meddle more than she wishes; and he never intended to do anything but with her advice and consent. She can see that she could not wish him to have more regard to her son's weal than he is determined to show. If anything expedient is passed over, it shall never be said that there was any lack in him to do as much or more than a loving uncle and brother should do. Commits the rest to her wisdom, and to those who will prove themselves his nephew's faithful subjects. They may be sure that by so doing they will obtain from him more benefit than they have hitherto, or shall receive by any other way.
1536-Princess Mary to Henry VIII.
The King gave her licence some time to send a servant to know of his health and prosperity. Has now sent her old servant Randal Dod with these letters as a token, and begs the King, if she is "over hasty in sending so soon," to pardon her, and believe that she would rather be a chamberer, having the fruition of the King's presence, than an Empress away from him. My sister Elizabeth is well, "and such a child toward, as I doubt not but your Highness shall have cause to rejoice of in time coming; as knoweth Almighty God, who send your Grace, with the Queen my good mother, health, with the accomplishment of your desires." Hownsdon, 21 July.
1540-Anne of Cleves to the Duke of Cleves.
Perceives by his letter of the 13th to the king of England, her “most dear and most kind brother,” that he takes the matter lately determined between them somewhat to heart. Informs him that she consented to the examination and determination, “wherein I had more respect (as beseemed me) to truth than to any worldly affection that might move me to the contrary, and did the rather condescend thereunto for that my body remaineth in the integrity which I brought into this realm.” The King has adopted her as his sister, and uses her with more liberality than she or her brother could well wish. Is well satisfied. The King's friendship for him will not be impaired for this matter unless the fault should be in himself. Thinks it necessary to write this, and that she purposes to live here, lest for want of true knowledge he should take the matter otherwise than he ought. Subscribed: Anna Duchess born of Cleves, Gulik, Geldre, and Berge, your loving sister.
Statement of the provision made by Henry VIII. for Anne of Cleves:—
1. She will be considered as the King's sister, and have precedence over all ladies in England, after the Queen and the King's children.2. She shall have an annual income of 8,000 nobles; and 500l. st. have been given to her officers. 3. Two manors, Richmond and Blechingley, having splendid houses and parks of 6 leagues and 2 leagues.
4. She shall have hangings, plate, and furniture, and (5), money for her household till her income is sufficient. 6. “Pretiosissimas [vestes].” 7. Jewels and pearls. 8. A good number of officers, the heads being nobles.
1545 – The first landing of French troops on the coast of the Isle of Wight during the French invasion of the Isle of Wight.
1553 - Arrest of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland