Today in Tudor History...
23 July 1411 – Battle of Harlaw, one of the bloodiest battles in Scotland, takes place.
1529 – Birth of Charles II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
1534 – French explorer Jacques Cartier plants a cross on the Gaspé Peninsula and takes possession of the territory in the name of Francis I of France.
1561 –Birth of Maria of the Palatinate-Simmern
1567 – Mary, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate and replaced by her 1-year-old son James VI.
Between 21 and 23 April 1567, Mary visited her son at Stirling for the last time. On her way back to Edinburgh on 24 April, Mary was abducted, willingly or not, by Lord Bothwell and his men and taken to Dunbar Castle, where he may have raped her.On 6 May, Mary and Bothwell returned to Edinburgh and on 15 May, at either Holyrood Palace or Holyrood Abbey, they were married according to Protestant rites.Bothwell and his first wife, Jean Gordon, who was the sister of Lord Huntly, had divorced twelve days previously
Originally Mary believed that many nobles supported her marriage, but things soon turned sour between the newly elevated Bothwell (created Duke of Orkney and consort of the Queen) and his former peers, and the marriage proved to be deeply unpopular. Catholics considered the marriage unlawful, since they did not recognise Bothwell's divorce or the validity of the Protestant service. Both Protestants and Catholics were shocked that Mary should marry the man accused of murdering her husband.The marriage was tempestuous, and Mary became despondent. Twenty-six Scottish peers, known as the confederate lords, turned against Mary and Bothwell, raising an army against them. Mary and Bothwell confronted the lords at Carberry Hill on 15 June, but there was no battle as Mary's forces dwindled away through desertion during negotiations.Bothwell was given safe passage from the field, and the lords took Mary to Edinburgh, where crowds of spectators denounced her as an adulteress and murderer.The following night, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, on an island in the middle of Loch Leven.Between 20 and 23 July, Mary miscarried twins.On 24 July, she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son James. Moray was made regent,while Bothwell was driven into exile. He was imprisoned in Denmark, became insane and died in 1578.
1568 –Death of Carlos, Prince of Asturias