Today in Tudor History...
1404 –Birth of Philip I, Duke of Brabant
1421 –Birth of Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland
1472 – Death of Charles of Artois, Count of Eu
1492 –Death of Pope Innocent VIII
1535-Chapuys to Charles V.
Since the return of the duke of Norfolk and the others from Calais I have several times written to your Majesty, and, among other things, that immediately after the said return Cromwell came to notify to me that nothing had been concluded on the part of his master, of which he wished me to inform you at once; and that I agreed to despatch a messenger, provided there was other matter to convey, such as that the King would accept the overtures made by your Majesty, or make better ones. I have also written how, besides other three Carthusians who have been executed with the same cruelty as the former ones, they had beheaded the cardinal of Rochester and Master Morus, to the great grief of the whole people. I have also written how the affairs of Kildare prospered, and that the English were sending two persons to Lubeck and Denmark. At the request of the Princess I lately sent a message to Cromwell to know if she could be placed with the Queen; but he told me that the King his master would never consent to it, and there was no occasion for it, except that the said Queen was too papistical. He said the true means to get the Princess removed from where she was, and cured of her illness, would be to find a suitable match for her, provided it was not the Dauphin, to whom they had no intention of giving her, however much your Majesty might desire it; and that they were importuned by several petty princes of Germany, but this would degrade her too much. I think the King is not over anxious to marry, her; and, if we may trust the concubine, the dower will not cost much, because she is incessantly crying after the King that he does not act with prudence in suffering the Queen and Princess to live, who deserved death more than those who have been executed, and that they were the cause of all. Since Shrovetide I have sent a servant once or twice every week to the said Princess, but lately her gouvernante told my man that she was charged not to let him come in again. On this I have asked Cromwell to know the will of the King his master.
Cromwell tried to dissemble towards me the despatches of the two persons above mentioned, but at last, not to lose his influence with me in other things, he confessed it. They have not yet left, but are only waiting weather to sail. I have not been able to discover anything about their charge, but I fear they go in order to trouble matters in case the Count Palatine aspires to the kingdom of Denmark. From one thing to another he came to say that they see clearly that your Majesty is aiming at universal monarchy, and that you had already cast down kings on all sides (que desia vre. Mate. en avoit jecte les roys de tous coustez); and that, having the seacoast of the Levant and neighbouring countries, you only required to put the Count Palatine in possession of Denmark, and all the neigbouring countries would be compelled by fear or force to obey you, but he did not see what title the Count could claim to Denmark.
Cromwell told me that he would have paid 1,000l. sterling that your Majesty had heard a sermon made by the bishop of London a few days ago on the validity of the first marriage and the usurpation of the Pope, and that he would send it to me in writing, begging me to forward it to your Majesty. Hereupon he remarked that the King would never consent to a General Council convoked by papal or any other authority than that of your Majesty, who was the lawful head of princes and of all Christendom, to whom the right of convoking it belonged by ancient custom. Your Majesty will consider what is the meaning of this. Whatever looks or words they give there is little hope of bringing them to the right way. Their obstinacy seems to increase every day; yet they rely little on the favor of the French, of whom they are continually speaking ill, and with whom they associate very little. Cromwell, even when the bishop of Tarbes came to his gate three days ago, caused him to be told that he was gone out, when he was really playing at bowls, as the said ambassador told me, who thereupon came to visit me. I hear from France that they play them a like game in return (ilz leur en jouent bien a la pareille), for they have confiscated two English ships at Rouen by virtue of a mandate which was posted up a year ago in France. If this be so, and the French insist on keeping these ships, matters will be much embroiled between them and the English. I hear on good authority that the King intends to send Dr. Fox, his almoner, at the same time as the others into Denmark, and he will pass further into Germany. London, 25 July 1535.
1539 – Death of Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio
1547 – Henry II of France is crowned.
1554 – Mary I marries Philip II of Spain at Winchester Cathedral.
1593 – Henry IV of France publicly converts from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
1603 – James VI of Scotland is crowned king of England