Today in Tudor History...
28 July 1488 – Death of Edward Woodville
He was a member of the Woodville family during the Wars of the Roses. He survived the reign of Richard III in which several of his relatives were executed in a power struggle after the death of Edward IV. Exiled with Henry Tudor, he participated in Henry's capture of the throne. He was then appointed Lord of the Isle of Wight, the last person to be given that title.An enthusiastic soldier, he has been called "the last knight errant" because of his devotion to the chivalrous ideal. Involved in many military adventures, he was finally killed in an ill-fated personal expedition to Brittany in support of Francis II, Duke of Brittany.Woodville used the title Lord Scales after the death of his brother Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, who bequeathed the Scales lands to him. He is consistently referred to as Lord Scales in Spanish and Breton records, but he never officially held the baronial title.
1488-The Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier took place on July 28, 1488, between the forces of king Charles VIII of France, and those of Francis II, Duke of Brittany and his allies. The defeat of the latter signalled the end to the "guerre folle" ('Mad war'), a feudal conflict in which French aristocrats revolted against royal power during the regency of Anne de Beaujeu. It also effectively precipitated the end of the independence of Brittany from France.
1531-Catherine of Aragon to Charles V.
Your Ambassador has informed me of what the Pope has been treating of with Your Majesty, that the cause of the King and myself should be tried at Cambray, away from the Rota. As we daily expected a sentence from the Pope, I am scandalised by this news, and do not know what to say. His Holiness shows himself as good as ever in remedying what he has so often been supplicated about. If I had not seen your answer to the Pope, I should not know what to do but to commend myself to God, and ask for justice. Their gifts, subornations, and promises are so great, that they will make the judges say that black is white. I beg you not to agree to delay, but to procure a speedy sentence.
The testimony to my virginity from Spain will be of great use. I cannot but complain of the Pope, who, by the delay, keeps the King in bondage (tiene preso al Rey mi señor). Meanwhile they are making new inventions, and gaining new hope. They cause the King to do things which lessen his honor and fame, and imperil his conscience. The Pope is the cause of all this, by his refusal of justice. Commendations for the Ambassadors. Vnysor (Windsor), 28 July.
1540-Execution of Thomas Cromwell,Earl of Essex
Thomas Cromwell was arrested at a Council meeting on 10 June 1540, and imprisoned in the Tower. A bill of attainder containing a long list of indictments, including supporting Anabaptists, protecting Prostestants accused of Heresy and thus failing to enforce the Act of Six Articles, and plotting to marry Lady Mary Tudor, was introduced into the House of Lords a week later, and was passed on 29 June 1540. He was also connected with 'sacramentarians' (those who denied transubstantiation) in Calais. All Cromwell's honours were forfeited. The King deferred the execution until his marriage to Anne of Cleves could be annulled. Hoping for clemency, Cromwell wrote in support of the annulment in his last personal address to the King.
Cromwell was condemned to death without trial and beheaded on Tower Hill on 28 July 1540, the day of the King's marriage to Catherine Howard. After the execution, his head was set on a spike on London Bridge.Edward Hall, a contemporary chronicler, records that Cromwell made a speech on the scaffold, professing to die, "in the traditional faith" and then "so paciently suffered the stroke of the axe, by a ragged and Boocherly miser, whiche very ungoodly perfourmed the Office".
Halle said of Cromwell's downfall:
Many lamented but more rejoiced, and specially such as either had been religious men, or favoured religious persons; for they banqueted and triumphed together that night, many wishing that that day had been seven years before; and some fearing lest he should escape, although he were imprisoned, could not be merry. Others who knew nothing but truth by him both lamented him and heartily prayed for him. But this is true that of certain of the clergy he was detestably hated, & specially of such as had borne swynge, and by his means was put from it; for in dead he was a man that in all his doings seemed not to favour any kind of Popery, nor could not abide the snoffyng pride of some prelates, which undoubtedly, whatsoever else was the cause of his death, did shorten his life and procured the end that he was brought unto.
Henry came to regret Cromwell's execution, and later accused his ministers of bringing about Cromwell's downfall by false charges. On 3 March 1541, the French Ambassador, Charles de Marillac, reported in a letter that the King was now said to be lamenting that "under pretext of some slight offences which he had committed, they had brought several accusations against him, on the strength of which he had put to death the most faithful servant he ever had."
Thomas Cromwell’s Final Speech:
I am come hether to dye, and not to purge my self, as maie happen, some thynke that I will, for if I should do so, I wer a very wretche and miser: I am by the Lawe comdempned to die, and thanke my lorde God that hath appoynted me this deathe, for myne offence: For sithence the tyme that I have had yeres of discrecion, I have lived a synner, and offended my Lorde God, for the whiche I aske hym hartely forgevenes. And it is not unknowne to many of you, that I have been a great traveler in this worlde, and beyng but of a base degree, was called to high estate, and sithes the tyme I came thereunto, I have offended my prince, for the whiche I aske hym hartely forgevenes, and beseche you all to praie to God with me, that he will forgeve me. O father forgeve me. O sonne forgeve me, O holy Ghost forgeve me: O thre persons in one God forgeve me. And now I praie you that be here, to beare me record, I die in the Catholicke faithe, not doubtyng in any article of my faith, no nor doubtyng in any Sacrament of the Churche.* Many hath sclaundered me, and reported that I have been a bearer, of suche as hath mainteigned evill opinions, whiche is untrue, but I confesse that like as God by his holy spirite, doth instruct us in the truthe, so the devill is redy to seduce us, and I have been seduced: but beare me witnes that I dye in the Catholicke faithe of the holy Churche. And I hartely desire you to praie for the Kynges grace, that he maie long live with you, maie long reigne over you. And once again I desire you to pray for me, that so long as life remaigneth in this fleshe, I waver nothyng in my faithe.
And then made he his praier, whiche was long, but not so long, as bothe Godly and learned, and after committed his soule, into the handes of God, and so paciently suffered the stroke of the axe, by a ragged and Boocherly miser, whiche very ungoodly perfourmed the Office.
1540-Marriage of Henry VIII and Katherine Howard
source: Edward Hall,wikipedia,http://www.british-history.ac.uk/