Today in Tudor History...
4 August 1327 – First War of Scottish Independence: James Douglas leads a raid into Weardale and almost kills Edward III of England.
1430 –Death of Philip I, Duke of Brabant
1521 – Birth of Pope Urban VII
1530-Determination of the university of Alcala (Complutensis), at an assembly of the faculty of theology in the church of St. Ildefonso, that the marriage with a deceased brother's wife is not contrary to the Divine law, and the Pope can therefore grant a dispensation to allow such marriages. 1530, 4 Aug.
Papal mandate, inhibiting all persons, on pain of excommunication, from writing or intermeddling with the said cause, contrary to their conscience, through hope of reward or favor of any kind. Rome, 4 Aug. 1530.
1532 – The Duchy of Brittany is united to the Kingdom of France.
1549-The Battle of Woodbury Common, which occurred on 4 August 1549, was part of the Prayer Book Rebellion. Reinforcements had arrived on 2 August to assist the king's troops under John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, and a thousand Landsknechts (German mercenaries) arrived the following day under the command of Lord William Grey.
The king's army of some 5,000 men began a march from Honiton to relieve Exeter, which was under siege at the time, but instead of taking the heavily barricaded highway, Russell went westward, across the downs. Russell's scouts found their way barred by 2,000 men at Alphington and sent in Captain Travers to clear the road. In the words of Edward VI’s chronicler, John Hayward, those Cornishmen who were disarmed in this assault were “slain like beasts”. Russell’s advance continued onto Woodbury Common, where he pitched camp at a windmill. Here, Paulo Batista Spinola, the Italian commander, kept his men awake all night, fearing a night attack. This actually occurred at dawn the next day, on 4 August, when Devonian and Cornish forces defending Clyst St Mary came out to confront the larger force at the windmill. The difference in numbers and force of arms did nothing to deter them and the second battle of the uprising began. There were heavy losses on both sides and the result was inconclusive but Russell's army took many prisoners, 900 of whom would be executed the next day in the Clyst Heath massacre. This number was confirmed by John Hayward, Edward VI’s own chronicler
1578 – Death of Sebastian of Portugal
1598 – Death of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley,English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State (1550–1553 and 1558–1572) and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. He was the founder of the Cecil dynasty which has produced many politicians including two Prime Ministers.