Today in Tudor History...
12 September 1213 – Death of Peter II of Aragon
1369 – Death of Blanche of Lancaster.She was a member of the English royal House of Plantagenet, daughter of the kingdom's wealthiest and most powerful peer, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. She was the first wife of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and the mother of King Henry IV
1492 – Birth of Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino
1494 – Birth of François I , King of France from 1515 until his death. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a male heir.A prodigal patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, and the beginning of French exploration of the New World. Jacques Cartier and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire.For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres (the "Father and Restorer of Letters").He was also known as François au Grand Nez ("Francis of the Large Nose"), the Grand Colas, and the Roi-Chevalier (the "Knight-King") for his personal involvement in the wars against his great rival Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.Encircled by the territories of Charles V, Francis persevered in the long and ruinous military conflict, known as the Italian Wars, between France and the Holy Roman Empire. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, he unsuccessfully sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. As an alternative, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time.
1500 – Death of Albert III, Duke of Saxony
1530-The divorce:Notarial attestation of the oaths of the theologians of Bologna, dated 12 Sept. 1530.
1555- Trial of Archbishop Cranmer
13 September 1475 – Birth of Cesare Borgia, Italian cardinal.He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei. He was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia; Giovanni Borgia (Juan), Duke of Gandia; and Gioffre Borgia (Jofré in Valencian), Prince of Squillace.After initially entering the church and becoming a cardinal on his father's election to the Papacy, he became the first person to resign a cardinalcy after the death of his brother in 1498. His father set him up as a prince with territory carved from the Papal States, but after his father's death he was unable to retain power for long, according to Machiavelli this was due to his planning for all possibilities but his own illness. After escaping from prison Cesare died fighting in Spain.
1501 – Michelangelo begins work on his statue of David.
1502 – Birth of John Leland, English poet and antiquarian
1504 – Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand issue a Royal Warrant for the construction of a Royal Chapel (Capilla Real) to be built.
1521 – Birth of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State (1550–1553 and 1558–1572) and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. He was the founder of the Cecil dynasty which has produced many politicians including two Prime Ministers.
1529-Sir Thomas More to Mrs Alice "lady More"
I am informed by my son Heron of the loss of our barns, and our neighbours' also. The loss of so much corn is a pity, but we must not only be content, but be glad of God's visitation. Perhaps we have more cause to thank Him for our loss than for our winning, for His wisdom sees best what is good for us; so pray be of good cheer, and take all the household to church, and thank God both for what He has given and for what He has taken from us. "I pray you to make some good ensearch what my poor neighbours have lost, and bid them take no thought therefor; for if I should not leave myself a spoon, there shall no poor neighbour of mine bear no loss by any chance happened in my house." Begs her and the children to be merry, and consult with friends about providing seed corn for the coming year. Expected, on coming here, to remain with the King; but intends now to get leave next week and come home. Woodstock, 13 Sept. 1529.
1541 – After three years of exile, John Calvin returns to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine known as Calvinism.
1557 – Death of John Cheke, English scholar and politician, Secretary of State for England
1584 – San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid is finished.
1598 –Death of Philip II of Spain, King of Spain (second Philip to Castille, first to Aragon and the fourth to Navarre) from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as Philip I, Filipe I). From 1554 he was King of Naples and Sicily as well as Duke of Milan. During his marriage to Queen Mary I (1554–58), he was also Prince Consort of England and Ireland