Today in Tudor History...
11 October 1521 - Pope Leo X declared King Henry VIII the Fidei Defensor or Defender of the Faith. This title was given to honor Henry for his book Defense of the Seven Sacraments which attacked the theology of Martin Luther and was dedicated to Leo. This title was added to the full royal title of Henry as “Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith and Lord of Ireland”.
Bull of Leo. X. conferring upon the King, in full consistory, the title of "Fidei Defensor." Rome., 1521.
Wolsey's speech on presenting the bull for the title of Defender of the Faith:
When John Clerk, the King's ambassador at Rome, presented the King's book against Luther to the late pope, Leo X., in presence of the college of Cardinals, it was beautiful to hear with what exultation the Pope and Cardinals broke out into the praises of Henry, declaring that no one could have devised a better antidote to the poison of heresy, and that Henry had with great eloquence completely refuted Luther by reason, Scripture and the authority of the Fathers. He had thus devoted his learning to the support of religion, and shown an example to Christian princes. As an imperfect acknowledgment of this service, the Pope, with the unanimous assent of the Cardinals, a little before his death, ordained, by letters under the hands of himself and them, that Henry should henceforth be called "Defender of the Faith," and ordered a bull to be sent, which Wolsey now presents. Congratulates Henry on the honor, and himself on having induced him to undertake the work.
1531 – Huldrych Zwingli is killed in battle with the Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland.
1532 –King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn,Marchioness Of Pembroke left England for Calais
1534-Chapuys to Charles V.
The German mentioned in my last is one of the counts of Hoy, brother-in-law, and, as I understand, enemy to the king of Sweden. He has already spoken to Cromwell, but not to the King, and it is not known what he is soliciting. The King, being informed there was some talk of a marriage between the Infanta and the Dauphin, despatched the secretary of the French ambassador, as I have before informed you, to propose, as I understand, the marriage of the Bastard with the duke of Angoulême; and it is said that the admiral of France comes to consult upon this with other matters. The King has already sent a ship well armed and equipped for his passage, and given orders that he shall be well received wherever he goes. I understand also that the despatch of the said secretary was in order, that as the French king would not revoke the edict he had made about the shipping of merchandise between England and France, of which I have already written, he would at least suspend its execution, to appease the cry of this people till next parliament, when the acts of which the French complained would be amended. On this hope the suspension has been obtained.
The honest men among the King's Council believed that when there was a new Pope the King would resume his obedience to the Church, but news having lately arrived of the Pope's illness, when the duke of Norfolk and the Marquis suggested that, like a Catholic prince, he would make no difficulty in obeying the new Pope, he answered that no one should mock him by advising such a thing, for he would have no greater regard for any Pope in the world that might be chosen than for the meanest priest of his kingdom. Two days ago the news of his Holiness's death came by letters from Gregory de Casal, which has been to the King the greatest pleasure in the world, and Cromwell has been unable to refrain from saying several times in public that this great devil was dead, and it seemed as if he was very sorry he could find no worse name for him than devil.
Of late days lord Rochford's wife has been banished the Court because she had conspired with the (sa qu. la?) Concubine to procure the withdrawal from Court of the young lady whom this king has been accustomed to serve (la demoiselle que ce roy a accoustume de servir), whose influence increases daily, while that of the Concubine diminishes, which has already abated a good deal of her insolence (fierte et gloire). The said young lady has of late sent to the Princess to tell her to be of good cheer, and that her troubles would sooner come to an end than she supposed, and that when the opportunity occurred she would show herself her true and devoted servant.
The prohibition lately issued to speak of news from Ireland was to prevent it being known that Kildare had killed more than 1,500 of the King's men. It is said that Skeffington had embarked with all his men, and was on the point of setting sail, and, as I understand, he would be glad if the weather were such that he could not cross, for, as he has several times written to his friends, he considers himself undone if her goes. 13 Oct. 1534.
1537 – Solemn procession for the Queen Jane Seymour who was in labour
1537-Birth of Lady Jane Grey also known as The Nine Days' Queen was an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England from 10 July until 19 July 1553.
She was The great-granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary,queen of France. In May 1553, she was married to Lord Guildford Dudley, younger son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. When the 15-year-old king Edward VI lay dying in June 1553, he nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will, thus subverting the claims of his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth under the Third Succession Act. Jane was imprisoned in the Tower of London when the Privy Council decided to change sides and proclaim Mary as queen on 19 July 1553. Jane was convicted of high treason in November 1553, which carried a sentence of death, although her life was initially spared. Wyatt's rebellion of January and February 1554 against Queen Mary I's plans to marry Philip of Spain led to the execution of both Jane and her husband.
1540 - Emperor Karel names his son Philip, Duke of Milan
1573 - Battle of South Seas - Dutch rebels beat Spanish navy
12 October 1492 – Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas. The explorer believes he has reached the Indies.
1499-Birth of Claude of France, queen consort of France and duchess regnant of Brittany. She was the eldest daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany, as well as the first spouse of Francis I
1504 - Queen Isabella I of Spain signs her testament
1537 – Birth of Edward VI of England,son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first monarch raised as a Protestant. During Edward's reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority. The Council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, , and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, from 1551 Duke of Northumberland.
1537-Queen Jane Seymour to Cromwell.
"Informs him of the birth of her son "conceived in lawful matrimony." Hampton Court, 12 Oct.
1537-The Prince's Christening.
Mandate to the mayor and sheriffs of London to make proclamation forbidding the access of persons to the Court on Monday next, the day appointed for the Prince's christening, without special letters from the King or some of his Council, on account of the plague. No duke is to bring more than six persons in his company, no marquis more than five, no earl above four, no baron above three, no knight or squire above two, no bishop or abbot above four, and none of the King's or Queen's chaplains above two. Westminster, 12 Oct., Hen. VIII.
1558 – Birth of Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria
1576 – Birth of Thomas Dudley, English-American politician, 3rd Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
1576 –Death of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor