Today in Tudor History...
2 January 1492 – Reconquista: the Emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.
1514 – Death of William Smyth, English bishop
1536 – Eustace Chapuys visited the dying Catherine of Aragon
1538-Mary Duchess of Richmond to Cromwell.
Since her husband died a year and a half past, her father, under whose tuition she is, has often promised to be a suitor to the King for her dower; without any good effect to her. Begs Cromwell's help. About a fortnight past, she wrote to her father asking leave to come up and sue to the King for herself; but had "so short an answer" that she is in despair. Begs him to deliver the "humble supplication" he shall receive herewith, to the King, to remit the cause to the judges and the Council. But one thing, as her counsel say, delays the matter—that she cannot have out the writs. Trusts in Cromwell's mediation. Kenyngal, 2 Jan.
1539 - Geoffrey Pole, son of Sir Richard Pole and Margaret Pole,was pardoned after attempting suicide.
1554 – Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger and Sir Peter Carew were summoned to appear before Mary I's privy council.
1585 - Spain and Catholic France sign Saint League of Joinville
1602 - Spanish force in Ireland surrender to the English army at Kinsdale
3 January 1431 - Joan of Arc handed over to Bishop Pierre Cauchon
1437-Death of Catherine of Valois, Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. She was the daughter of Charles VI of France, wife of Henry V of England,mother of Henry VI of England, and through her secret marriage with Owen Tudor, the grandmother of Henry VII of England.Catherine's older sister Isabella was queen of England from 1396 until 1399, as the child bride of Richard II.
1496 - Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests a flying machine.
1521 – Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.
1533-Chapuys to Charles V.
Received, three days ago, the Emperor's letters of 7 Nov., with postscripts of 16th Nov. and 6th Dec. Informed the Queen of the good news therein, which was the most agreeable New Year's present she could have. She will write herself at the first opportunity.
Has not been able to find out more about what was done at the interview between the two Kings.
The Scotch ambassador, who is of his master's council and chamber, and a man of sense and virtue, discovered that the intention of the English was merely to amuse them with a show of peace, and thus gain time for preparations, and therefore returned home eight days ago. He is very ill pleased, not so much at his failure to conclude peace, and obtain the reparation for which he asked, as because, notwithstanding the King's promise that the English should not invade Scotland, the earl of Northumberland, the earl of Douglas (Angus), and his brother, all made raids on the same day, burning and killing, and carrying off many cattle and prisoners. When the Ambassador complained of it they said the raid had occurred before the captain had received the orders. The Ambassador was not contented with this excuse, and would not stop longer. At his departure the King made use of harsh language and threats ; to which the Ambassador replied, coldly and discreetly, that he had not come to bandy words ; that it was clear it was not right, but the confidence given by the new alliance with France and the earl of Douglas, which caused the King to leave the straight road of friendship. The Scotch were not rich in goods, but they were rich in courage, and had not given France an occasion to break so good and sincere a friendship for one which was patched up and new ; even if it were so he trusted that they would defend themselves well. Every one considers these words a declaration of war. Hears on good authority that the King is determined on war if the French will not interfere. His pretext is to replace the earl of Douglas, so that he may cause discord among the Scotch, and prevent their injuring him now that he is going to complete the folly of his new marriage.
Did not dare to send his men to visit the Ambassador, and therefore sent to him by a Scotch physician to say that he was sorry there was no opportunity of their seeing and entertaining each other, considering the friendship between their masters and the new brotherhood by reason of the order. He took this well, and offered to visit Chapuys, but he would not receive his visit. The Doctor said that the Ambassador did not think that the French would help them, but he did not care much for that, as generally the aid of the French did more harm than good.
The English on the borders who made the last raid are 15,000 in number. The expense must be great. Hears from a man who saw the money prepared, that the King, soon after his return from Calais, sent them 100,000 cr., and eight days afterwards 40,000.
The King sends a doctor of low quality to the king of Denmark and Hamburgh, but only on the affair mentioned in his last letter.
The Queen has been informed that the King repents having sent her away so far, and thinks God has inspired him to acknowledge his error. But she is quite wrong, for the repentance is only caused by the infamy and the murmurs of the people, and principally by the expense of keeping so many houses. He continually complains of this, and has already begun to diminish the expense of his retinue. Perhaps also the repentance is caused by fear that when the Pope is at Bologna with the Emperor he will give sentence against him, or at least decree a brief ordering him to take back the Queen. He fears having an adverse sentence shortly, and thinks of having another passed by his estates, or at least of appealing to a Council, which will never be held. He despairs of his case at Rome, and shows this by not wishing to give audience to the Nuncio. Though he said he would send for him, he has not done so.
At this feast the Queen's chaplain,who was imprisoned for writing and preaching in her favor, has been liberated on condition that he neither writes nor preaches till a fortnight after Easter. The jewels which the Queen lent the King have not been returned. Asks the Emperor to consider his private affairs, of which Grandvelle will inform him. London, 3 Jan. 1533
1534-Chapuys to Charles V.
The little pamphlet composed by the Council, which I lately sent to your Majesty, is only a preamble and prologue of others more important, which are now being printed. One is called Defensorium Pacis, written in favor of the emperor Loys, of Bavaria, against apostolic authority. Formerly no one dared read it, for fear of being burnt, but now it is translated into English so that all the people may see and understand it. The other is entitled, “Concerning Royal and Priestly Authority,” and proves that bishops ought to be equal to other priests, except in precedence and in the honor showed them in church, and that kings and princes ought to be sovereign over churchmen, according to the ancient law. which is the point most agreeable to the King, and have the administration of their temporal goods. The King will certainly try to put this last in execution, as well on account of his hatred for churchmen as from covetousness, and will be urged on by the Lady and his Council. In order to encroach upon the sovereignty over the Church it has been proposed to give the archbishop of Canterbury the seal of the Chancery, and pass bulls, dispensations, and other provisions under it. If the Pope had been as diligent as these people are in trying to serve him this trick, there would have been no question of such disorders. Your Majesty may consider that since God has abandoned these people, and allowed them to do such execrable acts, and taken away their senses, there is fear for the safety of the Queen and Princess, as they would think that when these persons were dead, they would be free from all trouble on the part of your Majesty. Every one here fears this. Being unable to apply any other remedy, I thought of causing a third person to show to Cremuel, Norfolk and others of the Council, that though your Majesty should be urged on by the Spaniards, and yourself wished to declare war (of which, however. there was no question at all), there was no fear of a war while the Queen lived, as she daily charged me to beg you not to think of making war on her behalf, as she would rather die. I should also let them know, in the same way that it would cause suspicion if anything happended either to her or to the Princess. I have not yet had an opportunity of putting this into practice, and have been waiting to hear the Queen's advice.
The King's chief purpose in composing this book is to justify himself to the people and gain their favor; but he is mistaken, for he has only irritated them more, even those who are slightly contaminated with Lutheranism. Cremuel showed one of the books to the Scotch ambassador, who said that if the councillors of Scotland had done such a thing they would have been all burnt without mercy, and with good cause.
Two Scotch bishop and an earl are expected shortly, to treat of peace. It is thought they may ask for the Princess as a wife for their King. If the peace depends upon that, they will conclude nothing, as the King will never consent. The ambassador here has already spoken of it, saying that even if she is a bastard, as they wish to make her, she is so virtuous and of such a family, that, the King: would not care for more. The bishop of Paris has not stayed here as long as was expected. He left the morrow of Innocents' day. it does not seem as if he had done much, and he has only had half the present the Kins intended to give him. a sign that he did not bring all the news the King wished, or that he spoke too much against the pamphlet.
The doctor of whom I last wrote (fn. 4) has not yet left. It is said he will go tomorrow. I have not been able to find out anything about his charge more than the conjectures in my last letters.
I was told that the King was sending another to Germany to stir up the Lutheran princes and cities, so as to give your Majesty trouble, and prevent you from attacking him, which is the thing he fears most in the world, as he knows that then he would not be master either of his subjects or of their goods, as he is now, nor have opportunity to attend to his own affairs, (“et quil ne luy donnera a entendre a ses affaires.”) While he has the power of taking what he wants from his subjects, he will not cease to make plots against your Majesty. I have been told of a thing that seems unlikely, but as my informant is an honest man I mention it. It is that the King intends to cause the Lutheran princes and cities of Germany to make war on the Pope and descend into Italy. The French king will then send an army to Italy on pretence of defending the Church, and the two armies will join and march where Francis thinks best.
It is said that the King has intelligence with the duke of Ferrara and others who are opposed to the Pope. I believe he will do everything he can without spending much money; but he has not much talent that way, being more stingy than he was, and besides he has not much money, if the goods of the Church and the taxes which he wishes to impose do not help him.
I hear that the King means to remove the Queen to the house already appointed for her. She does not advise me to speak to him, for if I speak firmly he may be irritated, and speaking mildly will only encourage him. If the personage sent by your Majesty were to arrive soon, it would prevent her ill-treatment and confirm the goodwill of good people, who, as I hear from several quarters, are astonished at the delay in sending someone.
The Princess has only one chamber-woman with her, and is in the worst lodging of the house. The people regret their treatment, and seem to be on the watch to move at the first favorable opportunity. Many of them soy this openly. All men of judgment, either at the Court or elsewhere, are dismayed. The Vice-Chamberlain (Sir John Gage), who is of the Council, and one of the wisest and most experienced in war of the whole kingdom, has renounced his office and gone to a charterhouse, intending, with the consent of his wife, to become a Carthusian. The bishop of Lincoln, who was at the beginning one of the promoters of the divorce, has said several times since Christmas that he would rather be the poorest man in the world than ever have been the King's councillor and confessor. London, 3 Jan. 1534.
1540 – Official reception of Anne of Cleves at Greenwich Palace
1541 – Anne of Cleves visited Henry VIII and Catherine Howard at Hampton Court Palace
1541 – Death of John Clerk, English bishop. He was educated at Cambridge University,and went on to serve under Cardinal Wolsey in a variety of capacities. He was also useful in a diplomatic capacity to both Wolsey and Henry VIII of England.
1590 – Death of Robert Boyd, Scottish noble and courtier