Today in Tudor History...
14 January 1478 – Birth of Henry Algernon Percy, 5th earl of Northumberland
1501 - Martin Luther, age 17, enters the University of Erfurt.
1507 – Birth of Catherine of Austria, Queen of Portugal
1514 - Pope Leo X issues a papal bull against slavery.
1515 – The Duke of Suffolk was sent to France to bring back Mary Tudor, Queen of France
1526 - Charles V & Francis I sign Treaty of Madrid, forcing Francis to give up claims to Burgundy, Italy & Flanders
1535-Chapuys to Charles V.
I have received your Majesty's letters of the 9th ultimo, and informed the Queen and Princess of what concerned them, which has been to their great comfort. I have always done, and shall do, my best to gain the goodwill of this people towards your Majesty. It does not cost much trouble, for they are almost all devoted to you. The day before yesterday lord Sands, the King's chamberlain, captain of Guisnes, and one of the best men of war in the kingdom, sent to tell me he was very sorry the times were such that he could not invite me to his house, but your Majesty might be sure that you had the hearts of all this kingdom; and that if you knew the great disorder that exists here, and the little hope of making good resistance now that the people were so alienated from the King, you would not delay to apply a remedy. At the least disturbance your Majesty could make, this kingdom would be found in inestimable confusion. The said lord Sands is at his house pretending to be ill, he is so disgusted with the Court, and has sent this message to me by his physician, whom I know. I like to make acquaintance with men of that profession, because they can come and go to all places without suspicion. I have sent no message yet to those mentioned in your letters, because my ordinary messenger is in Flanders.
Nothing is known about news from Ireland, except that about three days ago Cromwell delivered a good sum of money to two Irishmen, and said to some who were present that they had already taken one of the principal of those who had caused trouble there, and that Kildare would be taken and brought hither in a few days. Cromwell also mentioned that the king of France was raising lanceknights about Lorraine and the county of Montbeliard. Kildare has long been threatened, and will take as good care of himself as hitherto. It is true many fear that his men may betray him if he has not money to maintain them. I am told by a good man that about 60 English harquebusiers had entered some tower, but were surprised and driven out by Kildare, leaving their arms behind. I hear the King and Council are much disappointed at hearing nothing from France on the subject of the negotiations between the King and the Admiral, and they fear some intelligence with your Majesty. The King hopes that at an interview with Francis, which he reckons will be very soon, he will break off all other understandings. And to persuade Francis the better to this assembly, in order that he may not excuse himself, as last year, I am told that the King has come to no determination on any of the matters proposed by the Admiral, but put off his answer till the meeting. That was the answer given (among other things) as to the marriage of this princess with the duke of Angouleme; which the Admiral, I am told, took very ill; and still worse what occurred at the feast the King gave him on the eve of his departure, when he, being seated next the Lady, while they were dancing, (fn. 1) she burst into a fit of incontrollable laughter without any occasion. The Admiral frowned, and said, "What, madam, do you laugh at me?" On which she excused herself by saying it was because the King had told her he was going to ask for the Admiral's secretary to amuse her, and that the King had met on the way a lady who made him forget the matter. I don't know if the excuse was accepted as satisfactory. The King, on the other hand, and the Lady were much disappointed that the Admiral showed no pleasure at any attention that was shown to him, even at the Tower of London and the Ordnance.
As to master Godscalke, he must be ere this in Flanders. There is no way of hearing, as no Scotch ambassador has been here since the one who came to swear to the peace, who returned immediately; nor have the English sent any until now. The duke of Norfolk's brother leaves to-morrow, and carries some rich garments to present to the king of Scots, with cloth of gold and silver; and it is said he is to ask James to send back some English Observants who go about preaching there that this king is schismatic. He must also have some other charge, as the Council have met several times. At all events, he will have leisure to inquire about the business of Godscalke, and will probably again solicit James to be present at the proposed interview. People are astonished at the despatch of so stupid and indiscreet a man. I hear also he is to present a Barbary horse and three other great horses.
I have not been able to learn more about the count de Hui, except that I hear he got a very meagre present, and left ill content. Eight days ago Norfolk sent to tell me that his master, desiring to be frank with the Emperor. wished to communicate to me certain letters lately written to him by one named Jacques, a native of Bruges, who had left the Court of your Majesty, where he was halberdier, for some homicide; and after he had taken refuge in France, as I was informed, not only by him but by the treasurer of Besancon, who was then ambassador in that country, that he had done service to the Emperor, I took him into my service, but did not feel I could trust him, and got rid of him. He then returned to France, entered the service of Mons. de Likerke, fled to Scotland for another homicide, and at last, as I wrote a few days ago, has arrived here. He relates in the said letters several services he has done to your Majesty, which, he says, have been ill-requited, charging you with avarice and ingratitude more than any other prince; for which reason he offered, through the duke of Norfolk, to do service to this king against your Majesty, and said he would endeavour to get into my service again to play the spy and let them know when I sent off despatches. He informed them also of the day that messire Gouschalke left your Majesty, and when he embarked for Flanders, saying that Kildare had accompanied him through Ireland with 500 horses till he embarked for Scotland, and that he had given Kildare all the ordnance in the zabre that brought him from Spain, and that he had done all he wanted in Scotland, so that your Majesty, who wanted to usurp everything, with the aid of the Irish and Scotch (who were now very bad Frenchmen on account of the refusal of the promised marriage), would make an expedition against England, although it would be fruitless, and that messire Gotschalke, who had once been chancellor of king Christiern, would conduct the affairs of your Majesty as unhappily as those of his late master. He said also that Gotschalke was very angry at him because he would not take some letters to Kildare in Ireland, and that he had some words with him, which, as he wrote, he did not wish to let me know. He said also in the said letters that he was kinsman of the provost of Cassel, who was formerly here as ambassador from your Majesty.
Having considered the whole matter, I told the gentleman, and sent word to the duke of Norfolk that there could have been no danger of the said Jacques doing mischief, for there was not the smallest chance of my taking him into my service again, and, moreover, that even if he were there and understood all I did, he could not have reported anything but what was honorable; it would rather have done me good by showing that things were quite otherwise from what was suspected. Nevertheless, I thanked them for what was a really friendly turn done to your Majesty and myself, adding that I would hereafter thank them in person. The Duke answered my messenger that if I would come to him he would await me at the place where the King's ships are built, halfway between Greenwich and this town. Next morning I was there at the appointed hour. The Duke and the treasurer Fitzwilliam had been waiting for me some time, being anxious to show me two ships which were then on land, the one finished and the other not. In doing which the Duke several times said it was a good thing for a king of England to be provided with such vessels to inspire awe in those who wished to attack him, and that he thought with these two, and four or five in the river before them, they could tight the whole world. He also said that your Majesty would have much trouble with Barbarossa, who was "taille" not only to waste Sicily but also several other countries, and they had also news that Barbarossa was "paisible" of Tunis, and that the Turk was arming in great force at Constantinople. I said I thought that these ships might also serve against the Turk, and that everything might be set right "apres les fumees passees," and as to Barbarossa, I had firm hope that God would defend his own cause, and that often when the affairs of your Majesty seemed desperate, they were on the eve of a triumphant issue. When the Duke saw that I did not make much of his suggestions, he turned to another matter, and said I knew well the inestimable money that his master would derive from the power that the churchmen had given him. As it would have done no good to irritate those whom the case touched, I only said to him that those who had granted that had shown themselves very good subjects. He then said that if your Majesty would not show so much respect to the bishop of Rome, you might do the same yourself and fill your coffers. I answered, if that were determined by a General Council, it would tend to a common agreement. I then proceeded to thank the King and the Duke for their communication about the aforesaid letters, and I begged that I might have them to send, as evidence of their friendship, to your Majesty. He said he didn't know what had become of them, and was afraid he had burnt them that morning with some others, but would send them if he found them. I have little doubt he has them, but they mean to make use of them in France and Scotland. I told the Duke also that M. de Roguendorff had written to me that I ought particularly to report to him the disorder of affairs here, thinking that for the honesty and virtue the Duke had known in him, he would try to remedy it, and that if there were any misunderstanding between your Majesty and this king, he would endeavor to get the king of the Romans to be a mediator. The Duke replied he would it should cost him one of his hands that your Majesty and the King his master should be good friends, and that if M. de Roguendorff or I were prepared to make any overture, he would do his best in the matter. I said it was no use referring to Roguendorff, who had no knowledge of affairs here, or to me, who had no ability to speak of such things before such a prudent council as that of the King; for I had ventured formerly to represent that the good treatment of the Queen and Princess was very necessary not to offend God and the world, and not having seen any amendment in that matter, I did not intend to speak of it any more, especially as the English ambassador had intimated to your Majesty that they should be treated with all favor and respect.
The Duke then sought somehow to excuse the said treatment, and, finding it would be troublesome to make a pertinent conclusion. said neither would he enter into discussion of such matters, and that I should devise some other means. I said God would find means when he pleased, and that what I had said was only to comply with the wish of the sieur de Roguendorff. In parting, when I was about to embark on the boat, the Duke said it was very strange your Majesty would receive ambassadors from that traitor, meaning Kildare, and still more, that you had sent ambassadors to him with ordnance, as he had been informed. I told him I didn't believe it, but that your Majesty might have sent to Ireland for some matter relating to the Spanish fishermen who haunt their coasts, and that if they were suspicious of anything, your Majesty would doubtless explain it to their ambassador.
The said Jacques has had some suspicions, and hidden himself two or three days. Now he begins to go at large. As he might run away before I have an answer from your Majesty, I have written to the Queen in Flanders whether it would not be well to make some suit against him, knowing that the duke of Norfolk would help, for he hates him, and when he was at Marseilles, meeting Jacques at La Palisse, he took him prisoner by his own authority, as M. de Likerke well knows, who had to speak to the French king about it.
There is a report that the Pope has sent a brief to this king. If his Holiness expected to mend matters here he was mistaken, for since the report, the King, who held in his hands the bishoprics of cardinal Campeggio and the auditor of the Chamber. has given that of the former to the Lady's almoner and the other to another, and sermons and farces are made daily as much as ever against Papal authority.
I have not been able to find out what the Waywode's envoy solicited; most likely money, and to incite France and England against your Majesty and the king of the Romans. For a good Englishman told me he heard from the said envoy that he pretends the quarrel of Hungary touches not only his master, but this king and Francis; for if Hungary be overcome, France and England will be slaves to the Emperor. London, 14 Jan. 1535.
1559 – Coronation procession of Elizabeth I