Today in Tudor history...
21 May 1471-King Henry VI is killed in the Tower of London.
21 May 1471-Edward IV takes the throne.
21 May 1524-Death of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.He was the only son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his first wife, Katherine Moleyns. The Duke was the grandfather of both Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Katherine Howard and the great grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I. He served four monarchs as a soldier and statesman.
21 May 1527 -Birth of Philip II of Spain.He was King of Spain (second Philip to Castille, first to Aragon and the fourth to Navarre) from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as Philip I, Filipe I). From 1554 he was King of Naples and Sicily as well as Duke of Milan. During his marriage to Queen Mary I , he was also King of England and Ireland.
21 may 1534-Archbishop Lee and Tunstall to Henry VIII.
This day we repaired to the princess Dowager, when “I the archbishop of York, for an introduction to declare to her the effect of our commission, said to her:”—1, that you had often sent me and others of her council to declare to her the invalidity of your marriage with her; 2, that carnal knowledge, which is the great key of the matter, is sufficiently proved in the law, and admitted by some of her council; 3, that on proof of this you and she were divorced; 4, that she was thereupon admonished to give up the name of queen and not account herself your wife; 5, that you had contracted a new marriage with your dearest wife queen Anne; 6, that as fair issue is already sprung of this marriage, and more likely to follow, Parliament has made acts for the succession, and against all that would impugn it; for which reason we were sent to make her understand the purport of these acts, lest she should incur a penalty by ignorance. “Which thing being thus declared to her, she, being therewith in great choler and agony, and always interrupting our words,” made answer: 1, that she held the marriage between your Highness and her good, and would always account herself your lawful wife; 2, she denied that there was ever carnal knowledge between her and prince Arthur, and said they lied falsely that so said; 3, she declared she was not bound to stand to the divorce made by my lord of Canterbury, whom she called a shadow, and though he had given sentence against her, the Pope had given it in her favor, whom she took for Christ's vicar; 4, that she would never leave the name of queen; 5, that this marriage made after her appeal which she made by your Highness's leave, is of no value; 6, that she is not bound to the acts of Parliament, as she is your wife and not subject to you, and the acts were made by your subjects in your favor who are a party.
Tunstall, in reply to an observation that she made, that he and the rest of her counsel had always told her her matter was just, said the point on which they had been consulted when the Legates were here was only upon the validity of the bull and brief; but divers other questions had arisen and been debated by the chief universities of Christendom, among others by that of Bologna, the Pope's own town, and it was concluded that on the death of a brother who had carnal knowledge with his wife, no dispensation would enable the brother living to marry her. The Pope, too, had never maintained the contrary, but said at Marseilles that if you would send thither a proxy, he would give sentence for your Highness against her; and according to an epistle decretal sent hither by Campeggio, the Legates were to pronounce for the divorce if marriage and carnal knowledge had been had between prince Arthur and her; proofs of which were brought in before the Legates, and since before the Convocations of this realm and by them allowed; so that the Pope's sentence to the contrary was not valid. Tunstall had accordingly altered his opinion, and advised her to do the same; especially as the sentence to which she attaches so much importance was given after the King's appeal to the General Council. Refer to my lord of Chester, Mr. Almoner and Mr. Bedell to report further of her obstinacy, as they have very substantially ordered themselves in the execution of the premises. Huntingdon, 21 May.
21 may 1534- [Instructions to Persons sent to Katharine of Arragon.]
R. O. Her protestation that her first marriage was not consummated cannot be received in opposition to the presumptions of law and the depositions to the contrary, and the consummation is to be taken as sufficiently proved. The King marvels greatly that she persists in it. Touching her adherence to the bishop of Rome's sentence in her favor, this sentence is of no effect, being given after the King's appeal to the General Council, and by one who has no jurisdiction in the realm to define the legitimation or succession of princes. As to her desire to have her confessor, two chaplains, her physician, apothecary and two men servants, with as many women as the King pleases to appoint, who shall take no oath but to the King and to her, and none other woman, she must open her mind more plainly; “for which purpose they now do come unto her.” The King may perhaps grant some of her desires, but he must perceive that she will show such a reasonableness in her suit and demands that due conformity and obedience may ensue. If she desires to have this oath administered as to the King and to herself as dowager of prince Arthur, he might perhaps be induced thereto, but she cannot have them sworn to her as queen, for it is contrary to the King's conscience and to the laws. If she refuse this way, they think verily they must put her and all the foresaid folk to the act of the statute.
Her offer to remain in any gentleman's house with the said persons unsworn, is reputed to be dissembled and derogatory to the King's honor, but if she will abandon the title of queen, he will be contented to treat her honorably with what company she desires, and other pleasures appertaining to the honor of his dearest sister, but he cannot allow any of his native subjects to refuse to take the oath.
21 may 1535-Arrest of William Tyndale
21 May 1553 - Marriage of Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley
21 May 1554 – Queen Mary I grants a royal charter to Derby School, as a grammar school for boys in Derby, England.