1 December 1420 – Henry V of England enters Paris.
1541-Thomas Culpepper was arrested
1577 – Francis Walsingham is knighted.
5 December 1560 –Death of Francis II of France.He was a monarch of the House of Valois-Angoulême who was King of France from 1559 to 1560. He was also King consort of Scotland as a result of his marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, from 1558 until his death.He ascended the throne of France at the age of fifteen after the accidental death of his father, Henry II, in 1559. His short reign was dominated by the first stirrings of the French Wars of Religion and the loss of French possessions in Corsica, Tuscany, Savoy, and almost all of Piedmont under the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.
Although the royal age of majority had been set at fourteen, his mother, Catherine de' Medici, entrusted the reins of government to his wife's uncles from the House of Guise, staunch supporters of the Catholic cause. They were unable to help Catholics in Scotland against Scottish reformers, however, and the Auld Alliance was dissolved.
Francis was succeeded by two of his brothers in turn, both of whom were also unable to reduce tensions between Protestants and Catholics.
6 December 1421 – Birth of Henry VI of England
7 December 1545 – Birth of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley,second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots
8 December 1542 – Birth of Mary, Queen of Scots.She was Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567 and Queen consort of France from 10 July 1559 to 5 December 1560.Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, and in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, and Darnley was found murdered in the garden.James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James, her one-year-old son by Darnley. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had previously claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth, and was subsequently executed.
9 December 1541 – Agnes Tilney,step-grandmother of Katherine Howard and dowager duchess of Norfolk was interrogated
10 December 1520 – Martin Luther burns his copy of the papal bull Exsurge Domine outside Wittenberg's Elster Gate.
1541 –Thomas Culpeper, gentleman of the privy chamber, and Francis Dereham, secretary are executed for adultery with Katherine Howard.
13 December 1553 – Birth of Henry IV of France
1577 – Sir Francis Drake sets sail from Plymouth, England, on his round-the-world voyage
14 December 1542 – Death of James V of Scotland.Princess Mary Stuart becomes Mary, Queen of Scots.
1562 – Death of William Grey, 13th Baron Grey of Wilton and military commander
1593 – Death of Henry Radcliffe, 4th Earl of Sussex
1624 – Death of Charles Howard, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham and 1st Earl of Nottingham
15 December 1558 – Death of James Fleming, 4th Lord Fleming and Lord Chamberlain of Scotland
1558 – Funeral of Reginald Pole
1560 – Death of Thomas Parry, comptroller of the household to Elizabeth I and Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire
16 December 1431 – Hundred Years' War: Henry VI of England is crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris.
1485 – Birth of Catherine of Aragon.She was Queen of England from 1509 until 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Prince Arthur.The daughter of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Prince Arthur, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, and Arthur died five months later. In 1507, she held the position of ambassador for the Spanish Court in England, becoming the first female ambassador in European history.Catherine subsequently married Arthur's younger brother, the recently succeeded Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part.By 1525, Henry VIII was infatuated with his mistress, Anne Boleyn, and dissatisfied that his marriage to Catherine had produced no surviving sons, leaving their daughter, the future Mary I of England, as heiress presumptive at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne. He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events that led to England's schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters. In 1533 their marriage was declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as Supreme Head of the Church of England and considered herself the King's rightful wife and queen, attracting much popular sympathy.Despite this, she was acknowledged only as Dowager Princess of Wales by Henry. After being banished from court, she lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, and died there on 7 January 1536. Catherine's English subjects held her in high esteem, and her death set off tremendous mourning among the English people
17 December 1550 – Birth of Henry Cavendish, soldier, traveller and son of Bess of Harwick and Sir William Cavendish
1600 – Marriage of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici.
19 December 1490 – Anne, Duchess of Brittany, is married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor by proxy.
1562 – The Battle of Dreux takes place during the French Wars of Religion.
1576 – Death of Katherine Palmer, Abbess of Syon
20 December 1541 – Agnes Tilney begged Henry VIII for forgiveness
1571 – Death of Richard Butler, 1st Viscount Mountgarret
21 December 1495 – Death of Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford and 1st Earl of Pembroke
1505 – Birth of Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton, Lord Privy Seal and Lord Chancellor to Henry VIII
1536 – Death of Sir John Seymour, father of Queen Jane Seymour
1539 – Death of Sir John Shelton
1549 – Death of Marguerite of Navarre
22 December 1534 – John Fisher,Bishop of Rochester wrote to Thomas Cromwell
"Does not wish to displease the King. When last before him and the other commissioners he swore to the part concerning the succession for the reason he then gave, but refused to swear to some other parts, because his conscience would not allow him to do so. “I beseech you to be good master unto me in my necessity, for I have neither shirt nor sheet nor yet other clothes that are necessary for me to wear, but that be ragged and rent too shamefully. Notwithstanding, I might easily suffer that if they would keep my body warm. But my diet also God knows how slender it is at many times. And now in mine age my stomach may not away but with a few kind of meats, which if I want I decay forthwith, and fall into coughs and diseases of my body, and cannot keep myself in health.” His brother provides for him out of his own purse, to his great hindrance. Beseeches him to pity him, and move the King to take him into favor and release him from this cold and painful imprisonment. Desires to have a priest within the Tower to hear his confession “against this holy time;” and some books to stir his devotion more effectually. Wishes him a merry Christmas. At the Tower, 22 Dec"
1541 – Members of the Howard and Tilney family were indicted for misprision of treason
23 December 1558 – Queen Elizabeth I moved from Somerset House to Whitehall Palace
1588 –Death of Henry I, Duke of Guise